Multiresidue Pesticide Analysis of Dried Botanical Dietary Supplements Using an Automated Dispersive SPE Cleanup for QuEChERS and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.
ABSTRACT An automated dispersive solid phase extraction (dSPE) cleanup procedure as part of the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) method, coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization in positive mode, was used for the simultaneous analysis of 236 pesticides in three dried powdered botanical dietary supplements (ginseng, saw palmetto, and gingko biloba). The procedure involved extraction of the dried powdered botanical samples with salt-out acetonitrile/water extraction using anhydrous magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride, followed by an automated dSPE cleanup using a mixture of octadodecyl- (C(18)) and primary-secondary amine (PSA)-linked silica sorbents and anhydrous MgSO(4) and online LC-MS/MS analysis. Dynamic multiple-reaction monitoring (DMRM) based on the collection of two precursor-to-product ion transitions with their retention time windows was used for all of the targeted pesticides and the internal standard. Matrix-matched calibration standards were used for quantitation, and standard calibration curves showed linearity (r(2) > 0.99) across a concentration range of 0.2-400 ng/mL for the majority of the 236 pesticides evaluated in the three botanical matrices. Mean recoveries (average %RSD, n = 4) were 91 (6), 93 (4), 96 (3), and 99 (3)% for ginseng, 101 (9), 98 (6), 99 (4), and 102 (3)% for gingko biloba, and 100 (9), 98 (6), 96 (4), and 96 (3)% for saw palmetto at fortification concentrations of 25, 100, 250, and 500 μg/kg, respectively. The geometric mean matrix-dependent instrument detection limits were 0.17, 0.09, and 0.14 μg/kg on the basis of the studies of 236 pesticides tested in ginseng roots, gingko biloba leaves, and saw palmetto berries, respectively. The method was used to analyze incurred ginseng samples that contained thermally labile pesticides with a concentration range of 2-200 μg/kg, indicating different classes of pesticides are being applied to these botanicals other than the traditional pesticides that are commonly used and analyzed by gas chromatography techniques. The method demonstrates the use of an automated cleanup procedure and the LC-MS/MS detection of multiple pesticide residues in dried, powdered botanical dietary supplements.
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ABSTRACT: A new method has been developed and validated for the determination of multi-class pesticide residues in nutraceutical products obtained from grape seed extracts. The E extraction procedure was based on QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) methodology using ethyl acetate as solvent and dispersive solid phase extraction (dSPE) clean-up stage with C18 included to minimise matrix effects. Pesticides determination was achieved using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS), and total running time was 11 min. Pesticides were quantified using matrix-matched calibration. The developed method was validated in terms of matrix effect, linearity, selectivity, limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs), trueness, repeatability and inter-day precision at three concentration levels (10, 50, 100 µg kg(-1)). Suitable recovery values were obtained for 76% of analysed pesticides at the lowest concentration (10 µg kg(-1)). For most of the compounds, relative standard deviation (RSD) values were lower than 20% and 25% for intra-day and inter-day precision, respectively. Finally, 106 pesticides were determined, and the method was applied to seven dietary supplements from grape seed extract, obtaining various positive results for piperonyl butoxide, cyromazine and diniconazole at concentrations ranging from 2.0 to 13.4 µg kg(-1).Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 06/2014;
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ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to monitor residual pesticides in ginseng and balloon flower roots and to assess their risk to human health. All of 112 samples consisted of ginseng and balloon roots were purchased from traditional domestic markets and supermarkets in nine provinces of Korea in 2012. Multi-residue analysis of 122 pesticides was conducted and the analysis was performed by gas chromatography-electron capture detector, gas chromatography- nitrogen/phosphorus detector, and high-performance liquid chromatography. Seven pesticides were detected in 12 root samples and the detection rate was 10.7%. The detected twelve root samples were 10 ginseng root samples and 2 balloon root samples. Pesticides detected in root samples were procymidone, kresoxim-methyl, endosulfan, cypermethrin, tralomethrin, tetraconazole and chlorfluazuron. Among them, two pesticides as tetraconazole in a balloon flower root and cypermethrin in a ginseng root exceeded the recommended maximum residue limit set by Korea Food and Drug Administration. Five pesticides detected from 10 root samples were identified as unregistered pesticides in Korea. In order to do risk assessment with Korean medicinal plant consumption, estimated daily intake of residual pesticides were determined and compared to acceptable daily intake, referring to %ADI values. The range of %ADI values was from 0.006% to 0.333%. Taken together, it demonstrates the pesticides found in the two root samples were below the safety margin, indicating no effect on human health.Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety. 03/2013; 28(1).
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ABSTRACT: A method based on QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) has been developed and validated for the determination and quantification of more than 140 pesticides in nutraceutical products obtained from green tea (Camellia sinensis). Extraction was performed with acidified acetonitrile (acetic acid 1%, v/v) and a clean-up step using primary secondary amine (50 mg), graphitized black carbon (100 mg) and magnesium sulfate (200 mg) was needed. Pesticide determination was achieved utilizing GC coupled to triple quadrupole MS/MS using the selective-reaction monitoring mode. The total run time was 23 min. Pesticides were quantified using matrix-matched calibration. Recoveries ranged from 70 to 120% and relative SD was lower than 25% at 10, 50, and 100 μg/kg. LOQs were lower than 10 μg/kg. 148 pesticides were validated. The validated method was applied to commercial nutraceutical products, detecting 4,4-dichlorobenzophenone (28 μg/kg), o,p'-dicofol (38 μg/kg) and p,p-dicofol (44 μg/kg) in a few samples.Journal of Separation Science 01/2014; · 2.59 Impact Factor