Multiresidue Pesticide Analysis of Dried Botanical Dietary Supplements Using an Automated Dispersive SPE Cleanup for QuEChERS and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

Institute for Food Safety and Health, Moffett Campus, Illinois Institute of Technology , 6502 South Archer Road, Bedford Park, Illinois 60501-1957, United States.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (Impact Factor: 2.91). 08/2012; 60(40). DOI: 10.1021/jf301723g
Source: PubMed


An automated dispersive solid phase extraction (dSPE) cleanup procedure as part of the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) method, coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization in positive mode, was used for the simultaneous analysis of 236 pesticides in three dried powdered botanical dietary supplements (ginseng, saw palmetto, and gingko biloba). The procedure involved extraction of the dried powdered botanical samples with salt-out acetonitrile/water extraction using anhydrous magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride, followed by an automated dSPE cleanup using a mixture of octadodecyl- (C(18)) and primary-secondary amine (PSA)-linked silica sorbents and anhydrous MgSO(4) and online LC-MS/MS analysis. Dynamic multiple-reaction monitoring (DMRM) based on the collection of two precursor-to-product ion transitions with their retention time windows was used for all of the targeted pesticides and the internal standard. Matrix-matched calibration standards were used for quantitation, and standard calibration curves showed linearity (r(2) > 0.99) across a concentration range of 0.2-400 ng/mL for the majority of the 236 pesticides evaluated in the three botanical matrices. Mean recoveries (average %RSD, n = 4) were 91 (6), 93 (4), 96 (3), and 99 (3)% for ginseng, 101 (9), 98 (6), 99 (4), and 102 (3)% for gingko biloba, and 100 (9), 98 (6), 96 (4), and 96 (3)% for saw palmetto at fortification concentrations of 25, 100, 250, and 500 μg/kg, respectively. The geometric mean matrix-dependent instrument detection limits were 0.17, 0.09, and 0.14 μg/kg on the basis of the studies of 236 pesticides tested in ginseng roots, gingko biloba leaves, and saw palmetto berries, respectively. The method was used to analyze incurred ginseng samples that contained thermally labile pesticides with a concentration range of 2-200 μg/kg, indicating different classes of pesticides are being applied to these botanicals other than the traditional pesticides that are commonly used and analyzed by gas chromatography techniques. The method demonstrates the use of an automated cleanup procedure and the LC-MS/MS detection of multiple pesticide residues in dried, powdered botanical dietary supplements.

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    • "It forms part of the QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective , rugged and safe) procedure, the other part of which involves salting-out extraction. QuEChERS is commonly used for the extraction of pesticides in fruits and vegetables [21] [22]. DSPE alone, as an independent sample preparation method, has been widely applied for the enrichment of analytes in aqueous samples [23] [24]. "
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