Modulation of Innate Host Factors by Mycobacterium avium Complex in Human Macrophages Includes Interleukin 17

NCI-Frederick, Фредерик, Maryland, United States
The Journal of Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 6). 08/2012; 206(8):1206-17. DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jis492
Source: PubMed


Although opportunistic infections due to Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) have been less common since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy, globally, human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1)-positive patients remain predisposed to these infections. Absence of a properly functioning acquired immune response allows MAC persistence within macrophages localized in lymph nodes coinfected with HIV and MAC. Although a deficiency in interferon γ appears to play a part in the ability of MAC to deflect the macrophage-associated antimicrobial attack, questions about this process remain. Our study examines the ability of MAC to regulate interleukin 17 (IL-17), a proinflammatory cytokine involved in host cell recruitment.

Coinfected lymph nodes were examined for IL-17 by immunohistochemical analysis. In vitro, macrophages exposed to mycobacteria were evaluated for transcription activities, proteins, and signaling pathways responsible for IL-17 expression. Infected macrophages were also analyzed for expression of interleukin 21 (IL-21) and negative regulators of immune responses.

Infection of macrophages triggered synthesis of IL-17, correlating with IL-17 expression by macrophages in coinfected lymph nodes. Infected macrophages exposed to exogenous IL-17 expressed CXCL10, which favors recruitment of new macrophages as targets for infection. Blockade of nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways suppressed mycobacteria-induced IL-17 expression. MAC triggered expression of IL-21, IRF4, and STAT3 genes related to IL-17 regulation, as well as expression of the negative immunoregulators CD274(PD-L1) and suppressors of cytokine signaling.

MAC-infected macrophages can provide an alternative source for IL-17 that favors accumulation of new targets for perpetuating bacterial and viral infection while suppressing host antimicrobial immune responses.

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