A preclinical rodent model of radiation-induced lung injury for medical countermeasure screening in accordance with the FDA animal rule.
ABSTRACT The purpose of preclinical murine model development is to establish that the pathophysiological outcome of the rodent model of radiation-induced lung injury is sufficiently representative of the anticipated pulmonary response in the human population. This objective is based on concerns that the C57BL/6J strain may not be the most appropriate preclinical model of lethal radiation lung injury in humans. In this study, the authors assessed this issue by evaluating the relationship between morbidity (pulmonary function, histopathologic damage) and mortality among three strains of mice: C57BL/6J, CBA/J, and C57L/J. These different strains display variations in latency and phenotypic expression of radiation-induced lung damage. By comparing the response of each strain to the human pulmonary response, an appropriate animal model(s) of human radiation-induced pulmonary injury was established. Observations in the C57L/J and CBA/J murine models can be extrapolated to the human lung for evaluation of the mechanisms of action of radiation as well as future efficacy testing and approving agents that fall under the "Animal Rule" of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (21 CFR Parts 314 and 601).
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- "One of MCART's functions is to develop/characterize animal models of radiation injury. Accordingly, MCART has had success establishing total body irradiation doseresponse ranges and survival curves for H-ARS and GI-ARS in mice and in lung whole-thorax irradiation [Booth et al., 2012a; Jackson et al., 2012; McGurk et al., 2012; Plett et al., 2012] "
ABSTRACT: The possibility of a public health radiological or nuclear emergency in the United States remains a concern. Media attention focused on lost radioactive sources and international nuclear threats, as well as the potential for accidents in nuclear power facilities (e.g., Windscale, Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Fukushima) highlight the need to address this critical national security issue. To date, no drugs have been licensed to mitigate/treat the acute and long-term radiation injuries that would result in the event of large-scale, radiation, or nuclear public health emergency. However, recent evaluation of several candidate radiation medical countermeasures (MCMs) has provided initial proof-of-concept of efficacy. The goal of the Radiation Nuclear Countermeasures Program (RNCP) of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (National Institutes of Health) is to help ensure the government stockpiling of safe and efficacious MCMs to treat radiation injuries, including, but not limited to, hematopoietic, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, cutaneous, renal, cardiovascular, and central nervous systems. In addition to supporting research in these areas, the RNCP continues to fund research and development of decorporation agents targeting internal radionuclide contamination, and biodosimetry platforms (e.g., biomarkers and devices) to assess the levels of an individual's radiation exposure, capabilities that would be critical in a mass casualty scenario. New areas of research within the program include a focus on special populations, especially pediatric and geriatric civilians, as well as combination studies, in which drugs are tested within the context of expected medical care management (e.g., antibiotics and growth factors). Moving forward, challenges facing the RNCP, as well as the entire radiation research field, include further advancement and qualification of animal models, dose conversion from animal models to humans, biomarker identification, and formulation development. This paper provides a review of recent work and collaborations supported by the RNCP.Drug Development Research 02/2014; 75(1):23-8. DOI:10.1002/ddr.21163 · 0.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background/Aim: We compared pulmonary irradiation-induced whole-lung, gene transcripts over 200 days after 20 Gy thoracic irradiation in female fibrosis-prone C57BL/6NHsd mice with fibrosis-resistant C3H/HeNHsd mice. Lung specimens were analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR) and changes over time in representative gene transcript levels were correlated with protein levels using western blot. C3H/HeNHsd mice showed a significantly longer duration of elevation of gene transcripts for stress-response genes nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (Nfkb), nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), transcription factor SP1 (SP1), activator protein 1 (AP1), radioprotection gene manganese superoxide dismutase (Sod2), and endothelial cell-associated genes von Willebrand factor (Vwf) and vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegf). C57BL/6NHsd mice showed acute elevation then down-regulation and a second elevation in gene transcripts for Nfkb, connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf), insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (Igfbp7), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (Tnfa) Ctgf, Igfbp7, Tnfa, collagen 1a, and toll like receptor 4 (Tlr4). There were reciprocal patterns of elevation and decrease in levels of transcripts for epigenetic reader proteins bromodomain coding protein 1 (Brd1)Brd2,-3, and -4 between mouse strains. Regulatory pathways linked to radiation pulmonary fibrosis may identify new targets for mitigators of radiation-induced fibrosis.In vivo (Athens, Greece) 28(2):147-71. · 1.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The most detailed reports of the response of the gastrointestinal system to high dose acute radiation have focused mainly on understanding the histopathology. However, to enable medical countermeasure assessment under the animal rule criteria, it is necessary to have a robust model in which the relationship between radiation dose and intestinal radiation syndrome incidence, timing, and severity are established and correlated with histopathology. Although many mortality studies have been published, they have used a variety of mouse strains, ages, radiation sources, and husbandry conditions, all of which influence the dose response. Further, it is clear that the level of bone marrow irradiation and supportive care can influence endpoints. In order to create robust baseline data, the authors have generated dose response data in adult male mice maintained under identical conditions and exposed to either total or partial-body irradiation. Partial-body irradiation includes both extensive (40%) and minimal (5%) bone marrow sparing models, the latter designed to correlate with an established primate model and allow assessment of effects of any medical countermeasure on all three major radiation syndromes (intestinal, bone marrow, and lung) in the surviving mice. Lethal dose (LD(30), LD(50), and LD(70)) data are described in the various models, along with the impact of enteric flora and response to supportive care. Correlation with diarrhea severity and histopathology are also described. These data can be used to aid the design of good laboratory practice (GLP)-compliant Animal Rule studies that are reflective of the conditions following accidental radiation exposure.Health physics 10/2012; 103(4):383-99. DOI:10.1097/HP.0b013e318266ee13 · 0.77 Impact Factor