Overexpression of CCL20 and its receptor CCR6 predicts poor clinical prognosis in human gliomas.
ABSTRACT Recent studies have demonstrated that the chemokine CCL20 and its receptor CCR6 may be involved in tumorigenesis, tumor progression and metastatic spread of various human malignancies. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathological significance and prognostic value of CCL20 and CCR6 expression in human malignant glioma. CCL20 and CCR6 expression in human gliomas and nonneoplastic brain tissues was measured by immunohistochemistry. The association of CCL20 and CCR6 expression with clinicopathological factors or prognosis in glioma patients was statistically analyzed. The expression levels of CCL20 and CCR6 proteins were both up-regulated in glioma tissues. There was a significantly positive correlation between the expression of the two markers (r = 0.88; P < 0.001). In addition, the overexpressions of CCL20 and CCR6 were both detected in high-grade glioma tissues compared with those in low-grade tissues and increased with ascending tumor World Health Organization (WHO) grades (P = 0.006 and 0.008, respectively). The increased expressions of CCL20 and CCR6 proteins were also significantly correlated with low Karnofsky performance score (both P = 0.01). Moreover, univariate analysis found that CCL20 expression (P = 0.002), CCR6 expression (P = 0.002) and CCL20/CCR6 co-expression (P < 0.001) were all significantly associated with poor prognosis. In particular, glioma patients with CCL20/CCR6 co-expression have the shortest overall survival. Multivariate analysis further identified the expression levels of CCL20 and CCR6 to be independent prognostic factors. Our data suggest for the first time that CCL20 and CCR6 might play an important role in the regulation of aggressiveness in human gliomas. The up-regulation of CCL20 and CCR6 might be closely associated with poor clinical outcome of patients with gliomas.
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ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DC), the most potent antigen presenting cells (APC), have been shown able to process apoptotic tumor cells and necrotic tumor cells for antigen presentation. Apoptosis and necrosis are the two common final pathways through which the tumors are killed by chemotherapy or radiation therapy. The tumor cells receiving radiation often produce the "danger signal" cytokines such as TNF-alpha and IL-1. Another cytokine MIP-3alpha that is able to attract DC to the tumor site is normally not secreted. We hypothesize that if artificial introduction of a large number of DC to the necrotic tumor site after radiation therapy by transfecting any cells at the tumor site to secrete DC-tropic MIP-3alpha, an anti-tumor immune response would be initiated. C57BL/6J mice bearing a well-known Lewis lung carcinoma are used to assess efficacy of this modality. The plasmid DNA containing pcDNA3.1/MIP-3alpha was injected into the subcutaneous tumors after radiation treatment. We demonstrate a detectable local expression of MIP-3alpha and local accumulation of DC. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes after the treatment are predominantly CD8+ T-cells with rare CD4+ T-cells. The anti-tumor immune response was also measurable, which contributes at least in part to the finding that the treated mice have smaller tumor and prolonged survival, comparing to the control groups. This study suggests a potential new means of immune modulation and provides us a new concept of immunotherapy of cancer.Immunology Letters 04/2006; 103(2):101-7. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate and compare the expression profiles of CXCL12 (SDF-1), CCL19 (MIP-3beta), CCL20 (MIP-3alpha) and CCL21 (6Ckine, Exodus2) and their receptors on RNA and protein levels in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) versus colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) and to elucidate their impact on the carcinogenesis and progression of malignant liver diseases. Chemokine expression was analyzed by RT-PCR and ELISA in 11 cases of HCC specimens and in 23 cases of CRLM and corresponding adjacent non-tumorous liver tissues, respectively. Expressions of their receptors CXCR4, CCR6 and CCR7 were analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis in the same cases of HCC and CRLM. Significant up-regulation for CCL20/CCR6 was detected in both cancer types. Moreover, CCL20 demonstrated significant overexpression in CRLM in relation to the HCC tissues. Being significantly up-regulated only in CRLM, CXCR4 displayed an aberrant expression pattern with respect to the HCC tissues. Correlation of CXCR4 expression with CRLM suggests CXCR4 as a potential predictive factor for CRLM. High level expression of CCL20 and its receptor CCR6 in HCC and CRLM with marked up-regulation of CCL20 in CRLM in relation to HCC tissues indicates involvement of the CCL20/CCR6 ligand-receptor pair in the carcinogenesis and progression of hepatic malignancies.World Journal of Gastroenterology 12/2006; 12(41):6627-33. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The expression of the chemokine CC-chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20)/macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-3alpha and its receptor CC-chemokine receptor 6 (CCR6) by multiple myeloma (MM) and microenvironment cells and their potential relationship with osteoclast (OC) formation and osteolytic bone lesions in MM patients was investigated in this study. First, we found that MM cells rarely produce CCL20/MIP-3alpha but up-regulate its production by bone marrow (BM) osteoprogenitor cells and osteoblasts in coculture with the involvement of soluble factors as interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha. MM cells also stimulate both CCL20/MIP-3alpha and CCR6 expression by OCs in coculture. Thereafter, we showed that CCL20/MIP-3alpha significantly increases both the number of multinucleated tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive OCs and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB-positive OC progenitor cells similar to CCL3/MIP-1alpha. Finally, we found that blocking anti-CCL20/MIP-3alpha and anti-CCR6 antibodies significantly inhibits MM-induced OC formation. In vitro data were further expanded in vivo analyzing a total number of 64 MM patients. Significantly higher CCL20/MIP-3alpha levels were detected in MM patients versus monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance (MGUS) subjects and in MM osteolytic patients versus nonosteolytic ones. Moreover, a significant increase of CCL20/MIP-3alpha-positive osteoblasts in osteolytic MM patients compared with nonosteolytic ones was observed. Interestingly, no significant difference in BM CCL20/MIP-3alpha expression and level was observed between MGUS and nonosteolytic MM patients. Our data indicate that CCL20/MIP-3alpha and its receptor CCR6 are up-regulated in the bone microenvironment by MM cells and contribute to OC formation and osteolytic bone lesions in MM patients.Cancer Research 09/2008; 68(16):6840-50. · 8.65 Impact Factor