Cobedding and Recovery Time After Heel Lance in Preterm Twins: Results of a Randomized Trial

Women’s and Newborn Health Program, IWK Health Centre, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.
PEDIATRICS (Impact Factor: 5.3). 08/2012; 130(3):500-6. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2012-0010
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cobedding of preterm twin infants provides tactile, olfactory, and auditory stimulation and may affect pain reactivity. We carried out a randomized trial to assess the effect of cobedding on pain reactivity and recovery in preterm twin neonates.
Stable preterm twins (n = 67 sets) between 28 and 36 weeks of gestational age were randomly assigned to a cobedding group (cared for in the same incubator or crib) or a standard care group (cared for in separate incubators or cribs). Pain response (determined by the Premature Infant Pain Profile [PIPP]) and time to return to physiologic baseline parameters were compared between groups with adjustment for the nonindependence of twin infants.
Maternal and infant characteristics were not significantly different between twin infants in the cobedding and standard care groups except for 5-minute Apgar <7 and postnatal age and corrected gestational age on the day of the heel lance. Mean PIPP scores were not different between groups at 30, 60, or 120 seconds. At 90 seconds, mean PIPP scores were higher in the cobedding group (6.0 vs 5.0, P = .04). Recovery time was shorter in the cobedding group compared with the standard care group, (mean = 75.6 seconds versus 142.1 seconds, P = .001). No significant adverse events were associated with cobedding. Adjustment for nonindependence between twins and differences in baseline characteristics did not change the results.
Cobedding enhanced the physiologic recovery of preterm twins undergoing heel lance, but did not lead to lower pain scores.

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    ABSTRACT: Background The purpose of this trial was to determine whether cobedding of preterm twins has analgesic effects during heel lancing or not. Methods One hundred premature twins (50 sets) born between 26 weeks' and 34 weeks' gestation undergoing heel blood sampling were randomly assigned into two groups: the cobedding group (receiving care in the same incubator) and the standard care group (receiving care in separate incubators). Pain was assessed using the premature infant pain profile score. Duration of crying was measured after heel blood sampling, and salivary cortisol was measured prior to and after heel blood sampling. Results Infants in the standard care group cried for a longer time during heel lancing than those in the cobedding group (42.6 ± 19.8 seconds vs. 36.4 ± 21.7 seconds, p = 0.03). The mean premature infant pain profile score after heel lancing was significantly higher in the standard care group (9.8 ± 2.6 vs. 8.06 ± 2.8, p = 0.002). The mean salivary cortisol after heel lancing was also significantly higher in the standard care group (24.3 ± 7.4 nmol/L vs. 20.8 ± 7.4 nmol/L, p = 0.02). No significant adverse effects were seen with cobedding. Conclusion Cobedding is a comforting measure for twin premature infants during heel lancing, which can be performed without any significant adverse effects.
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Databases searched in August 2011: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library); Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews; MEDLINE (1950 onwards); PubMed (1975 onwards); EMBASE (1974 onwards); CINAHL (1982 onwards); Web of Science (1980 onwards); LILACS database (1982 onwards); SCIELO database (1982 onwards); PsycInfo (1980 onwards); AMED (1985 onwards); Dissertation-Abstracts International (1980 onwards). Searches were conducted throughout September 2012. Studies with randomisation or quasi-randomisation, double or single-blinded, involving term infants (> 37 completed weeks postmenstrual age (PMA)) to a maximum of 44 weeks PMA and preterm infants (< 37 completed weeks PMA) receiving SSC for painful procedures conducted by doctors, nurses, or other healthcare professionals. The main outcome measures were physiological or behavioural pain indicators and composite pain scores. 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