Design and Synthesis of β-Site Amyloid Precursor Protein Cleaving Enzyme (BACE1) Inhibitors with in Vivo Brain Reduction of β-Amyloid Peptides.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, ‡Department of Neuroscience, and §Department of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics (DMPK), AstraZeneca R&D Södertälje , SE-151 85, Södertälje, Sweden.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (Impact Factor: 5.48). 08/2012; 55(21). DOI: 10.1021/jm3009025
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The evaluation of a series of aminoisoindoles as β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) inhibitors and the discovery of a clinical candidate drug for Alzheimer's disease, (S)-32 (AZD3839), are described. The improvement in permeability properties by the introduction of fluorine adjacent to the amidine moiety, resulting in in vivo brain reduction of Aβ40, is discussed. Due to the basic nature of these compounds, they displayed affinity for the human ether-a-go-go related gene (hERG) ion channel. Different ways to reduce hERG inhibition and increase hERG margins for this series are described, culminating in (S)-16 and (R)-41 showing large in vitro margins with BACE1 cell IC(50) values of 8.6 and 0.16 nM, respectively, and hERG IC(50) values of 16 and 2.8 μM, respectively. Several compounds were advanced into pharmacodynamic studies and demonstrated significant reduction of β-amyloid peptides in mouse brain following oral dosing.