Development of items to assess patients' health literacy experiences at hospitals for the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) Hospital Survey.
ABSTRACT The complexity of health information frequently exceeds patients' skills to understand and use it. Improvement in hospital communication has the potential to improve the quality of care.
To develop a set of items to supplement the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) Hospital Survey (HCAHPS) to assess how well hospitals communicate health information to inpatients.
We conducted an environmental scan and obtained input from stakeholders to identify domains and survey items, and cognitively tested the item set in English and Spanish. We administered the items to a random sample of adult hospital patients using mail and telephone data collection. We estimate item-scale correlations for hypothesized multi-item composites, internal consistency reliability for composites, correlations among composites, and regressed global rating of the hospital and a would you recommend the hospital items on HCAHPS existing core and the new composites to evaluate the unique contribution of each to these "bottom-line" measures.
A total of 1013 surveys were obtained (55% response rate). With some exceptions, correlations between items and scales were consistent with the hypothesized item clusters. Three composites were identified: (1) communication about tests; (2) communication about how to care for self and medicines; and (3) communication about forms.
This study provides support for the measurement properties of the HCAHPS Item Set for Addressing Health Literacy. It can serve as both a measure of whether healthcare providers in a hospital setting have communicated effectively with their patients and as a tool for quality improvement.
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ABSTRACT: Improving health outcomes relies on patients' full engagement in prevention, decision-making, and self-management activities. Health literacy, or people's ability to obtain, process, communicate, and understand basic health information and services, is essential to those actions. Yet relatively few Americans are proficient in understanding and acting on available health information. We propose a Health Literate Care Model that would weave health literacy strategies into the widely adopted Care Model (formerly known as the Chronic Care Model). Our model calls for first approaching all patients with the assumption that they are at risk of not understanding their health conditions or how to deal with them, and then subsequently confirming and ensuring patients' understanding. For health care organizations adopting our model, health literacy would then become an organizational value infused into all aspects of planning and operations, including self-management support, delivery system design, shared decision-making support, clinical information systems to track and plan patient care, and helping patients access community resources. We also propose a measurement framework to track the impact of the new Health Literate Care Model on patient outcomes and quality of care.Health Affairs 02/2013; 32(2):357-67. DOI:10.1377/hlthaff.2012.1205 · 4.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: With the increasing recognition of health literacy as a worldwide research priority, the development and refinement of indices to measure the construct is an important area of inquiry. Furthermore, the proliferation of online resources and research means that there is a growing need for self-administered instruments. We undertook a systematic overview to identify all published self-administered health literacy assessment indices to report their content and considerations associated with their administration. A primary aim of this study was to assist those seeking to employ a self-reported health literacy index to select one that has been developed and validated for an appropriate context, as well as with desired administration characteristics. Systematic searches were carried out in four electronic databases, and studies were included if they reported the development and/or validation of a novel health literacy assessment measure. Data were systematically extracted on key characteristics of the instruments: breadth of construct ("generic" vs. "content- or context- specific" health literacy), whether it was an original instrument or a derivative, country of origin, administration characteristics, age of target population (adult vs. pediatric), and evidence for validity. 35 articles met the inclusion criteria. There were 27 original instruments (27/35; 77.1%) and 8 derivative instruments (8/35; 22.9%). 22 indices measured "general" health literacy (22/35; 62.9%) while the remainder measured condition- or context- specific health literacy (13/35; 37.1%). Most health literacy measures were developed in the United States (22/35; 62.9%), and about half had adequate face, content, and construct validity (16/35; 45.7%). Given the number of measures available for many specific conditions and contexts, and that several have acceptable validity, our findings suggest that the research agenda should shift towards the investigation and elaboration of health literacy as a construct itself, in order for research in health literacy measurement to progress.PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e109110. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0109110 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In 2012, Medicare began to tie reimbursements to inpatient complications, unplanned readmissions, and patient satisfaction, including satisfaction with pain management. We aimed to identify factors that correlate with (1) pain intensity during a 24-hour period after surgery; (2) less than complete satisfaction with pain control; (3) less than complete satisfaction with staff attention to pain relief while in the hospital; and we also wished (4) to compare inpatient and discharge satisfaction scores. Ninety-seven inpatients completed measures of pain intensity (numeric rating scale), satisfaction with pain relief, self-efficacy when in pain, and symptoms of depression days after operative fracture repair. The amount of opioid used in oral morphine equivalents taken during the prior 24 hours was calculated. Through initial bivariate and then multivariate analysis, we identified factors that were associated with pain intensity, less than complete satisfaction with pain control, and less than complete satisfaction with staff attention to pain relief. Patients who took more opioids reported greater pain intensity (r = 0.38). No factors representative of greater nociception (fracture type, number of fractures, days from injury to surgery, days from surgery to enrollment, or type of surgery) correlated with greater pain intensity. The best multivariable model for greater pain intensity included: depression or anxiety disorder (p = 0.019), smoking (0.047), and greater opioid intake (p = 0.001). Multivariable analysis for less than ideal satisfaction with pain control included the Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (PSEQ) (odds ratio [OR], 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92-0.99) alone; for less than ideal satisfaction with staff attention to pain control, the PSEQ (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.92-0.99) and opioid medication use before admission (OR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.1-12) were included. After operative fracture treatment, patients who take more opioids report greater pain intensity and less satisfaction with pain relief. Greater self-efficacy was the best determinant of satisfaction with pain relief. Evidence-based interventions to increase self-efficacy merit additional study for the management of postoperative pain during recovery from a fracture. Level II, prognostic study. See the Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 04/2014; 472(8). DOI:10.1007/s11999-014-3660-4 · 2.88 Impact Factor