Chapter 6: Lung cancer in never smokers: epidemiology and risk prediction models.
ABSTRACT In this chapter we review the epidemiology of lung cancer incidence and mortality among never smokers/nonsmokers and describe the never smoker lung cancer risk models used by the Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Network (CISNET) modelers. Our review focuses on those influences likely to have measurable population impact on never smoker risk, such as secondhand smoke, even though the individual-level impact may be small. Occupational exposures may also contribute importantly to the population attributable risk of lung cancer. We examine the following risk factors in this chapter: age, environmental tobacco smoke, cooking fumes, ionizing radiation including radon gas, inherited genetic susceptibility, selected occupational exposures, preexisting lung disease, and oncogenic viruses. We also compare the prevalence of never smokers between the three CISNET smoking scenarios and present the corresponding lung cancer mortality estimates among never smokers as predicted by a typical CISNET model.
- SourceAvailable from: Octavio Raúl Hinojosa de la Garza[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study correlated lung cancer (LC) mortality with statistical data obtained from government public databases. In order to asses a relationship between LC deaths and radon accumulation in dwellings, indoor radon concentrations were measured with passive detectors randomly distributed in Chihuahua City. Kriging (K) and Inverse-Distance Weighting (IDW) spatial interpolations were carried out. Deaths were georeferenced and Moran's I correlation coefficients were calculated. The mean values (over n = 171) of the interpolation of radon concentrations of deceased's dwellings were 247.8 and 217.1 Bq/m(3), for K and IDW, respectively. Through the Moran's I values obtained, correspondingly equal to 0.56 and 0.61, it was evident that LC mortality was directly associated with locations with high levels of radon, considering a stable population for more than 25 years, suggesting spatial clustering of LC deaths due to indoor radon concentrations.
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ABSTRACT: Lung cancer is among the most common and fatal malignancies worldwide, and is often diagnosed at an advanced stage. Self-assessment tools for individualised lung cancer risk could potentially refine our understanding of risk factors, and contribute to disease prevention and earlier detection, thus reducing the disease burden. The originally published algorithm of the validated Liverpool Lung Project risk prediction model for lung cancer was transformed into a web-based questionnaire called MyLungRisk (MLR, www.mylungrisk.org). This provides a user-friendly interface for individuals aged 50–79 years to estimate their risk of developing lung cancer in the next five years. It incorporates epidemiological risk factors such as age, gender, smoking duration, family history of lung cancer, previous history of pneumonia, previous diagnosis of cancer (other than lung cancer) and exposure to asbestos. Upon the completion of the web-based questionnaire, the individual is given an estimated lung cancer risk score for the next five years with an explanation of their risk, as per 100 average people in the population. In addition, advice is provided if the individual completing the questionnaire has any current symptoms (as per UK National Institute for Health and Care guidelines). MLR is a user-friendly interface for lung cancer risk assessment, based on validated scientific modelling. It is the first of its kind to be put on a widely accessible platform to the public.International Journal of Health Promotion and Education 02/2014;
- European Respiratory Journal 10/2014; 44(4):850-2. · 7.13 Impact Factor