Genome sequence of an unusual human G10P rotavirus detected in Vietnam.
ABSTRACT A rare human G10P rotavirus with a reassortment between bovine and human viruses was detected from a patient with acute gastroenteritis in Vietnam. Genetic analysis using complete coding sequences of all segments showed a genomic constellation of this virus of G10-P-I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T1-E1-H1. Its VP7 region was genetically related to that of a bovine rotavirus derived from Australia (strain VICG10.01), whereas all other genes were identical to those of a human rotavirus derived from Australia (strain Victoria/CK00047). These results indicate a possibility that the reassortment of the rotavirus was caused by immune escape in Australia and the rotavirus was carried to Vietnam. Additionally, this finding will help further understanding the evolution of rotaviruses circulating in Vietnam.
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ABSTRACT: Group A rotaviruses (ARoVs) are a common cause of severe diarrhea among children worldwide and the cause of approximately 45% of pediatric hospitalizations for acute diarrhea in Vietnam. ARoVs are known to cause significant economic losses to livestock producers by reducing growth performance and production efficiencies, however little is known about the implications of asymptomatic endemic circulation of ARoV. We aimed to determine the prevalence and predominant circulating genotypes of ARoVs on pig farms in a southern province of Vietnam. We found overall animal-level and farm-level prevalence of 32.7% (239/730) and 74% (77/104), respectively, and identified six different G types and 4 P types in various combinations (G2, G3, G4, G5, G9, G11 and P, P, P, and P). There was no significant association between ARoV infection and clinical disease in pigs, suggesting that endemic asymptomatic circulation of ARoV may complicate rotavirus disease attribution during outbreaks of diarrhea in swine. Sequence analysis of the detected ARoVs suggested homology to recent human clinical cases and extensive genetic diversity. The epidemiological relevance of these findings for veterinary practitioners and to ongoing pediatric ARoV vaccine initiatives in Vietnam merits further study.Veterinary Microbiology 03/2014; · 2.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Rotaviruses, a major cause of gastroenteritis in children worldwide accounts for around 0.5 million deaths annually. Owing to their segmented genome and frequently evolving capability, these display a wide variation in their genotypes. In addition to commonly circulating genotypes (G1, G2, G3, G4, G9, P and P), a number of infrequent genotypes are being continuously reported to infect humans. These viral strains exhibit variation from one geographical setting to another in their distribution. Though the introduction of vaccines (RotaTeq and Rotarix) proved to be very effective in declining rotavirus associated morbidity and mortality, the number of infections remained same. Unusual genotypes significantly contribute to the rotavirus associated diarrhoeal burden, may reduce the efficacy of the vaccines in use and hence vaccinated individuals may not be benefited. Vaccine introduction may bring about a notable impact on the distribution and prevalence of these viruses due to selection pressure. Moreover, there is a sudden emergence of G2 and G3 in Brazil and United States, respectively, during the years 2006-2008 post-vaccination introduction; G9 and G12 became predominant during the years 1986 through 1998 before the vaccine introduction and now are commonly prevalent strains; and disparity in the predominance of strains after introduction of vaccines and their natural fluctuations poses a vital question on the impact of vaccines on rotavirus strain circulation. This interplay between vaccines and rotavirus strains is yet to be explored, but it certainly enforces the need to continuously monitor these changes in strains prevalence in a particular region. Furthermore, these fluctuations should be considered while administration or development of a vaccine, if rotavirus associated mortality is ever to be controlled.Vaccine 04/2014; · 3.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human rotavirus Wa and porcine rotavirus OSU solutions were irradiated with simulated solar UV and visible light in the presence of different photosensitizers dissolved in buffered solutions. For human rotavirus, the exogenous effects were greater than the endogenous effects under irradiation with full spectrum and UVA and visible light at 25°C. For porcine rotavirus, the exogenous effects with UVA and visible light irradiation were only observed at high temperatures, > 40°C. The results from dark experiments conducted at different temperatures suggest that porcine rotavirus has higher thermostability than human rotavirus. Concentrations of 3'-MAP excited triplet states of 17.6 fM and above resulted in significant human rotavirus inactivation. The measured excited triplet state concentrations of ≤ 4.5 fM produced by UVA and visible light irradiation of natural dissolved organic matter solutions were likely not directly responsible for rotavirus inactivation. Instead, the linear correlation for human rotavirus inactivation rate constant (kobs) with the phenol degradation rate constant (kexp) values found in both 1 mM NaHCO3 and 1 mM phosphate buffered solutions suggested that OH radical was a major reactive species for the exogenous inactivation of rotaviruses. Linear correlations between rotavirus kobs and specific UV254nm absorbance of two river dissolved organic matter and two effluent organic matter isolates indicated that organic matter aromaticity may help predict the formation of radicals responsible for rotavirus inactivation. The results from this study also suggested that the differences in rotavirus strains should be considered when predicting solar inactivation of rotavirus in sunlit surface waters.Environmental Science & Technology 08/2013; · 5.48 Impact Factor
Genome Sequence of an Unusual Human G10P Rotavirus Detected
Yuki Matsushima,aEtsuko Nakajima,aTuan Anh Nguyen,bHideaki Shimizu,aAtsuko Kano,aYoko Ishimaru,aTung Gia Phan,cand
Division of Virology, Kawasaki City Institute of Public Health, Oshima, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa, Japana; Department of Gastroenterology, Children’s Hospital
No. 1, Ho-Chi Minh University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnamb; Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California, USAc; and Division of Microbiology, Department of
Pathology and Microbiology, Nihon University School of Medicine, Oyaguchi Kamicho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo, Japand
cially children (2). Annually, rotavirus causes 611,000 deaths
worldwide (9). Rotavirus is composed of double-stranded RNA
including 11 segments: the structural proteins of VP1 to VP4,
VP6, and VP7 and the nonstructural proteins of NSP1 to NSP6.
Since VP7 and VP4 are related to the binding to specific receptors
in hosts and they contain neutralizing epitopes, a rotavirus classi-
VP4 (2, 5, 11). Recent reports suggest characterization of all rota-
virus segments in order to correctly identify the genetic diversity
and infectious source of the virus (7, 8).
children with acute gastroenteritis during January 2008 to July
2008 in Vietnam, a rare G10P rotavirus (strain 163/Vietnam)
was detected from a child. The complete coding regions of all 11
segments of this virus were sequenced by primer walking. Cycle
kit (Beckman Coulter Inc., Fullerton, CA), and then sequences
were analyzed on the CEQ 2000XL DNA analysis system (Beck-
2000XL DNA analysis system software (version 4.3.9; Beckman
constellation of G10P rotavirus was G10-P-I1-R1-C1-M1-
A1-N1-T1-E1-H1. Interestingly, this G10P rotavirus was
closely related to bovine rotavirus (strain VICG10.01) in the VP7
virus were highly identical to those of human G1P rotavirus
(strain Victoria/CK00047), sharing at least 99% identity at the
nucleotide level. Therefore, the 163/Vietnam strain had reassort-
ment between bovine and human rotaviruses.
genes derived from human rotavirus. The G10 rotavirus primarily
The detection of G10 rotavirus from human feces recently was re-
pathogen in causing acute gastroenteritis in humans, espe-
the 163/Vietnam strain was genetically closer to that of bovine G10
rotavirus (98% nucleotide identity) than to that of any human G10
rotaviruses (?89% nucleotide identity). The finding suggested that
the 163/Vietnam strain is a newly divergent human G10P rotavi-
layers (2). The VP7 is associated with interaction with neutralizing
In conclusion, we report the presence of a new human rotavi-
rus containing a sequence of bovine rotavirus. Continuous sur-
veillance is needed to understand the prevalence of this new virus
in causing acute gastroenteritis in Vietnam.
Nucleotide sequence accession numbers. The GenBank ac-
cession numbers for the complete coding regions of all 11 seg-
ments of the new human G10P rotavirus strain 163/Vietnam
are AB714258 to AB714268.
and Sciences and the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, Japan.
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(ed), Fields virology, 5th ed, vol 2. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Phila-
Received 22 June 2012 Accepted 26 June 2012
Address correspondence to Hiroshi Ushijima, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Y.M. and E.N. contributed equally to this study.
Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
jvi.asm.org Journal of Virologyp. 10236–10237September 2012 Volume 86 Number 18
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