Force-Generation Capacity of Single Vastus Lateralis Muscle Fibers and Physical Function Decline With Age in African Green Vervet Monkeys.
ABSTRACT Previous studies on the contractile properties of human myofibrils reported increase, decrease, or no change with aging, perhaps due to the differences in physical activity, diet, and other factors. This study examined physical performance and contractile characteristics of myofibrils of vastus lateralis (VL) muscle in young adult and old African green vervet monkeys. Animals were offered the same diet and lived in the same enclosures during development, so we were able to examine skeletal muscle function in vivo and in vitro with fewer potential confounding factors than are typical in human research studies. Fiber atrophy alone did not account for the age-related differences in specific force and maximal power output. Regression modeling used to identify factors contributing to lower fiber force revealed that age is the strongest predictor. Our results support a detrimental effect of aging on the intrinsic force and power generation of myofilament lattice and physical performance in vervet monkeys.
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ABSTRACT: Regular exercise, particularly resistance training (RT), is the only therapy known to consistently improve muscle strength and quality (force per unit of mass) in older persons, but there is considerable variability in responsiveness to training. Identifying sensitive diagnostic biomarkers of responsiveness to RT may inform the design of a more efficient exercise regimen to improve muscle strength in older adults. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression. We quantified six muscle specific miRNAs (miR-1, -133a, -133b, -206, -208b and -499) in both muscle tissue and blood plasma, and their relationship with knee extensor strength in seven older (age=70.5±2.5years) adults before and after 5months of RT. MiRNAs differentially responded to RT; muscle miR-133b decreased, while all plasma miRNAs tended to increase. Percent changes in knee extensor strength with RT showed strong positive correlations with percent changes in muscle miR-133a, -133b, and -206 and with percent changes in plasma and plasma/muscle miR-499 ratio. Baseline level of plasma or plasma/muscle miR-499 ratio further predicts muscle response to RT, while changes in muscle miR-133a, -133b, and -206 may correlate with muscle TNNT1 gene alternative splicing in response to RT. Our results indicate that RT alters muscle specific miRNAs in muscle and plasma, and that these changes account for some of the variation in strength responses to RT in older adults. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.Experimental Gerontology 01/2015; 62. DOI:10.1016/j.exger.2014.12.014 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Longitudinal studies of upper extremity aging in humans include logistical concerns that animal models can overcome. The vervet is a promising species with which to study aging-related processes. However, age-related changes in upper extremity muscle structure have not been quantified in this species. This study measured age-related changes to muscle structure, examined relationships between muscle structure and measures of physical performance, and evaluated the presence of rotator cuff tears. Muscle structure (volume, optimal fiber length, and physiologic cross-sectional area (PCSA)) of 10 upper extremity muscles was quantified from the right upper limb of 5 middle-aged and 6 older adult female vervets. Total measured PCSA was smaller (P = .001) in the older adult vervets than in the middle-aged vervets. Muscle volume reduction predominate the age-related reductions in PCSA. Total measured PCSA was not correlated to any measures of physical performance. No rotator cuff tears were observed. Supraspinatus volume was relatively larger and deltoid volume relatively smaller in the vervet compared with a human. The vervet is an appropriate translational model for age-related upper extremity muscle volume loss. Functional measures were not correlated to PCSA, suggesting the vervets may have enough strength for normal function despite loss of muscle tissue. Reduced relative demand on the supraspinatus may be responsible for the lack of naturally occurring rotator cuff tears. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery / American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons ... [et al.] 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jse.2015.03.025 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Slow skeletal muscle troponin T (TNNT1) pre-messenger RNA alternative splicing (AS) provides transcript diversity and increases the variety of proteins the gene encodes. Here, we identified three major TNNT1 splicing patterns (AS1-3), quantified their expression in the vastus lateralis muscle of older adults, and demonstrated that resistance training modifies their relative abundance; specifically, upregulating AS1 and downregulating AS2 and AS3. In addition, abundance of TNNT1 AS2 correlated negatively with single muscle fiber-specific force after resistance training, while abundance of AS1 correlated negatively with V max. We propose that TNNT1 AS1, AS2 and the AS1/AS2 ratio are potential quantitative biomarkers of skeletal muscle adaptation to resistance training in older adults, and that their profile reflects enhanced single fiber muscle force in the absence of significant increases in fiber cross-sectional area.The Journals of Gerontology Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 12/2013; DOI:10.1093/gerona/glt204 · 4.98 Impact Factor