Article

Epidermal growth factor induces bladder cancer cell proliferation through activation of the androgen receptor

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA.
International Journal of Oncology (Impact Factor: 2.77). 08/2012; 41(5):1587-92. DOI: 10.3892/ijo.2012.1593
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Androgen receptor (AR) signals have been suggested to contribute to bladder tumorigenesis and cancer progression. Activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) also leads to stimulation of bladder tumor growth. However, crosstalk between AR and EGFR pathways in bladder cancer remains uncharacterized. We have recently shown that androgens activate the EGFR pathway in bladder cancer cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of EGF on AR activity in bladder cancer. EGF increased AR transcriptional activity by 1.2-, 1.9- and 2.0-fold in UMUC3, 5637-AR and J82-AR cell lines, respectively, over mock treatment and a specific EGFR inhibitor, PD168393, antagonized the EGF effect. Combined treatment of EGF and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) further induced AR transactivation while an AR antagonist, hydroxyflutamide (HF), abolished the effect of not only DHT but also EGF. In growth assays, EGF alone/DHT alone/EGF+DHT increased cell numbers by 16/12/19%, 6/14/18% and 30/12/38% in UMUC3-control-shRNA, 5637-AR and J82-AR, respectively, whereas the effects of EGF were marginal or less significant in UMUC3-AR-shRNA (8%) or AR-negative 5637-V (<1%) and J82-V (17%) cells. HF treatment at least partially counteracted the EGF effect on the growth of AR-positive cells. Western blotting demonstrated that EGF, especially in the presence of DHT, upregulated the expression of the p160 coactivator TIF2 and HF again blocked this stimulation. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed the association between AR and estrogen receptor (ER)-β or Src in UMUC3 cells and stronger associations with EGF treatment, implying the involvement of the AR/ER/Src complex in EGF-increased AR transactivation and cell growth. Current results, thus, suggest that EGF promotes bladder cancer cell proliferation via modulation of AR signals. Taken together with our previous findings, crosstalk between EGFR and AR pathways can play an important role in the progression of bladder cancer.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Koji Izumi, Feb 25, 2014
1 Follower
 · 
105 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Men are at a higher risk of developing bladder cancer than women. Since bladder cancer cell lines and tissues were found to express the androgen receptor, efforts have been made to inspect whether androgen-mediated androgen receptor signals are implicated in bladder carcinogenesis as well as cancer progression. Mounting evidence supports the view that bladder cancer is a member of the endocrine-related tumors and may clearly explain the gender-specific difference in the incidence. However, the underlying mechanisms of how androgen receptor signals regulate bladder cancer growth are still far from fully characterized. Moreover, it remains controversial whether the androgen receptor pathway always plays a dominant role in bladder cancer progression. In this review, we summarize the available data on the involvement of androgen receptor signaling in bladder cancer. In particular, current evidence demonstrating the stimulatory effects of androgens on tumor progression or, more convincingly, tumorigenesis via the androgen receptor pathway may offer great potential for androgen deprivation as a therapeutic or chemopreventive option in patients with bladder cancer.
    Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology 05/2012; 42(7):569-77. DOI:10.1093/jjco/hys072 · 1.75 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although accumulating preclinical evidence indicates the involvement of androgen receptor signals in bladder cancer (BC) development, its clinical relevance remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate the predictive role of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in BC recurrence in prostate cancer (PC) patients. We retrospectively reviewed 20,328 patients with PC diagnosed during 1991–2013 and identified 239 (1.2%) men having primary BC. After excluding ineligible patients, 162 patients made up a final cohort. With a median follow-up of 62 months, 38 (50%) of 76 control patients without ADT experienced BC recurrence, while 19 (22%) of 86 did in ADT group. Thus, patients having received ADT for their PC showed a significantly lower risk of BC recurrence (5-year actuarial recurrence-free survival: 76% v 40%; P < 0.001) and also had a significantly smaller number of recurrence episodes (5-year cumulative recurrence: 0.44 v 1.54; P < 0.001), compared to the control patients. A multivariable analysis revealed ADT as an independent prognosticator (hazard ratio, 0.29; 95% confidence interval, 0.17–0.49) for BC recurrence. This is the first clinical study showing that ADT significantly reduces the risk of BC recurrence.
    Oncotarget 12/2014; 5(24). · 6.63 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Revista de sanidad militar 09/2014;