Mechanisms and evolution of virulence in oomycetes.
ABSTRACT Many destructive diseases of plants and animals are caused by oomycetes, a group of eukaryotic pathogens important to agricultural, ornamental, and natural ecosystems. Understanding the mechanisms underlying oomycete virulence and the genomic processes by which those mechanisms rapidly evolve is essential to developing effective long-term control measures for oomycete diseases. Several common mechanisms underlying oomycete virulence, including protein toxins and cell-entering effectors, have emerged from comparing oomycetes with different genome characteristics, parasitic lifestyles, and host ranges. Oomycete genomes display a strongly bipartite organization in which conserved housekeeping genes are concentrated in syntenic gene-rich blocks, whereas virulence genes are dispersed into highly dynamic, repeat-rich regions. There is also evidence that key virulence genes have been acquired by horizontal transfer from other eukaryotic and prokaryotic species.
- SourceAvailable from: Nasir Ahmed Rajput[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Each oomycete pathogen encodes a large number of effectors. Some effectors can be used in crop disease resistance breeding, such as to accelerate R gene cloning and utilisation. Since cytoplasmic effectors may cause acute physiological changes in host cells at very low concentrations, we assume that some of these effectors can serve as functional genes for transgenic plants. Here, we generated transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants that express a Phytophthora sojae CRN (crinkling and necrosis) effector, PsCRN115. We showed that its expression did not significantly affect the growth and development of N. benthamiana, but significantly improved disease resistance and tolerance to salt and drought stresses. Furthermore, we found that expression of heat-shock-protein and cytochrome-P450 encoding genes were unregulated in PsCRN115-transgenic N. benthamiana based on digital gene expression profiling analyses, suggesting the increased plant defence may be achieved by upregulation of these stress-related genes in transgenic plants. Thus, PsCRN115 may be used to improve plant tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses.Scientific Reports 06/2015; 5(10837):1-15. DOI:10.1038/srep10837 · 5.08 Impact Factor
- American Journal of Potato Research 12/2014; 91(6):579-593. DOI:10.1007/s12230-014-9401-0 · 0.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Small secreted proteins (SSPs) are employed by plant pathogenic fungi as essential strategic tools for their successful colonization. SSPs are often species-specific and so far only a few widely phylogenetically distributed SSPs have been identified. A novel fungal SSP family consisting of 107 members was identified in the poplar tree fungal pathogen Marssonina brunnea, which accounts for over 17% of its secretome. We named these proteins IGY proteins (IGYPs) based on the conserved three amino acids at the N-terminus. In spite of overall low sequence similarity among IGYPs; they showed conserved N- and C-terminal motifs and a unified gene structure. By RT-PCR-seq, we analyzed the IGYP gene models and validated their expressions as active genes during infection. IGYP homologues were also found in 25 other Dikarya fungal species, all of which shared conserved motifs and the same gene structure. Furthermore, 18 IGYPs from 11 fungi also shared similar genomic contexts. Real-time RT-PCR showed that 8 MbIGYPs were highly expressed in the biotrophic stage. Interestingly, transient assay of 12 MbIGYPs showed that the MbIGYP13 protein induced cell death in resistant poplar clones. In total, 154 IGYPs in 26 fungi of the Dikarya subkingdom were discovered. Gene structure and genomic context analyses indicated that IGYPs originated from a common ancestor. In M. brunnea, the expansion of highly divergent MbIGYPs possibly is associated with plant-pathogen arms race.