Alterations in noradrenergic (NE) signaling have been implicated in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and adrenergic receptors are potential treatment targets.
To characterize central NE signaling in IBS, 11 patients and 11 healthy controls (HCs) were studied 3 times during an auditory oddball vigilance task after double-blind ingestion of the α2-adrenoreceptor (α2AR) antagonist yohimbine (YOH), the α2AR agonist clonidine (CLO), or placebo (PLA). Regional cerebral glucose metabolism was measured with [(18)F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Measures of anxiety, early-life trauma, plasma NE and blood pressure were acquired.
Patients had higher plasma NE levels than HCs before and after ingestion of all drugs (all p<0.05). YOH increased plasma NE and more anxiety in patients than in HCs. After YOH, NE levels directly correlated with drug-induced increases in anxiety in IBS patients (r=0.61), but not in HCs. IBS patients showed less YOH-mediated reduction of activity in a central arousal circuit, consistent with fewer functional presynaptic α2AR. In HCs, but not in patients, activation of amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) was inversely correlated with activation of anterior mid cingulate cortex (aMCC), and state anxiety covaried directly with activity in limbic and right frontotemporal cortices, but indirectly with activity in the left frontotemporal cortex. YOH-mediated reduction of activity in brainstem and amygdala inversely correlated with early life trauma.
IBS patients showed evidence for increased noradrenergic activity consistent with downregulation of presynaptic inhibitory α2ARs. Activity within central arousal circuits was biased toward greater excitability and reduced corticolimbic inhibition in IBS. Early life trauma may be one mediator of these abnormalities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has been associated with high prevalence of psychological disorders. However, it remains unclear whether IBS and each of its subtypes (predominant diarrhea IBS-D, constipation IBS-C, mixed IBS-M) are associated with higher anxiety and depressive symptoms levels. This study aimed to determine the associations of IBS and each of its subtypes with anxiety and/or depression. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis using five electronic databases (PubMed, PsychINFO, BIOSIS, Science Direct, and Cochrane CENTRAL). We selected case-control studies comparing anxiety and depression levels of patients with IBS to healthy controls, using standardized rating scales. Outcomes were measured as random pooled standardized mean differences (SMD). Ten studies were included in our analysis (885 patients and 1,384 healthy controls). Patients with IBS had significant higher anxiety and depression levels than controls (respectively, SMD = 0.76, 95 % CI 0.47; 0.69, p < 0.01, I2 = 81.7 % and SMD = 0.80, 95 % CI 0.42; 1.19, p < 0.01, I2 = 90.7 %). This significant difference was confirmed for patients with IBS-C and -D subtypes for anxiety, and only in IBS-D patients for depression. However, other IBS subtypes had a statistical trend to be associated with both anxiety and depressive symptomatology, which suggests a lack of power due to the small number of studies included. Patients with IBS had significantly higher levels of anxiety and depression than healthy controls. Anxiety and depression symptomatology should be systematically checked and treated in IBS patients, as psychological factors are important moderators of symptom severity, symptom persistence, decisions to seek treatment, and response to treatment.
European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 04/2014; 264(8). DOI:10.1007/s00406-014-0502-z · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic visceral pain in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has been difficult to treat effectively partially because its pathophysiology is not fully understood. Recent studies show that norepinephrine (NE) plays an important role in the development of visceral hypersensitivity. In this study, we designed to investigate the role of adrenergic signaling in visceral hypersensitivity induced by heterotypical intermittent stress (HIS). Abdominal withdrawal reflex scores (AWRs) used as visceral sensitivity were determined by measuring the visceromoter responses to colorectal distension. Colon-specific dorsal root ganglia neurons (DRGs) were labeled by injection of DiI into the colon wall and were acutely dissociated for whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Blood plasma level of NE was measured using radioimmunoassay kits. The expression of β2-adrenoceptors was measured by western blotting. We showed that HIS-induced visceral hypersensitivity was attenuated by systemic administration of a β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol, in a dose-dependent manner, but not by a α-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine. Using specific β-adrenoceptor antagonists, HIS-induced visceral hypersensitivity was alleviated by β2 adrenoceptor antagonist but not by β1- or β3-adrenoceptor antagonist. Administration of a selective β2-adrenoceptor antagonist also normalized hyperexcitability of colon-innervating DRG neurons of HIS rats. Furthermore, administration of β-adrenoceptor antagonist suppressed sustained potassium current density (IK) without any alteration of fast-inactivating potassium current density (IA). Conversely, administration of NE enhanced the neuronal excitability and produced visceral hypersensitivity in healthy control rats, and blocked by β2-adrenoceptor antagonists. In addition, HIS significantly enhanced the NE concentration in the blood plasma but did not change the expression of β2-adrenoceptor in DRGs and the muscularis externa of the colon. The present study might provide a potential molecular target for therapy of visceral hypersensitivity in patents with IBS.
PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e94726. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0094726 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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