50 years ago in the Journal of Pediatrics: smallpox and air travel: need for vigilance

Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.
The Journal of pediatrics (Impact Factor: 3.79). 09/2012; 161(3):408. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.04.002
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the relationship among ductal shunting, estimated pulmonary blood flow, and pulmonary hemorrhage in very preterm infants. A total of 126 babies born before 30 weeks' gestation (median gestation 27 weeks, range 23 to 29 weeks) underwent echocardiography at 5, 12, 24, and 48 hours of age; measurements included right and left ventricular output, superior vena cava flow, and color Doppler diameter of any ductal shunt. Pulmonary blood flow was derived from the sum of right ventricular output and estimated ductal shunt flow. Twelve (9.5%) babies had a pulmonary hemorrhage at a mean age of 38 hours. Compared with the rest of the cohort, these 12 babies were less likely to have had antenatal steroids (59% vs 90%) and were less mature (26 weeks vs 27 weeks). At the echocardiogram closest to the pulmonary hemorrhage, 11 (92%) of the 12 babies had a significant patent ductus arteriosus >1.6 mm in diameter (median 2 mm, range 0.7 to 2.4 mm), and the median pulmonary blood flow was 326 mL/kg/min (range 210 to 598 mL/kg/min). These measurements were significantly higher than those found in the rest of the cohort in the same period (median duct diameter 0.5 mm [range 0 to 2.9 mm], median pulmonary blood flow 237 mL/kg/min [range 107 to 569 mL/kg/min]). At 5-hour echocardiography the babies with pulmonary hemorrhage had significantly larger diameter ducts but similar pulmonary blood flow. Pulmonary hemorrhage in preterm babies is associated with significant ductal shunting and high estimated pulmonary blood flow.
    Journal of Pediatrics 08/2000; 137(1):68-72. DOI:10.1067/mpd.2000.106569 · 3.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The diagnosis of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) was determined by Doppler examinations of the descending aorta and/or main trunk of the pulmonary artery in a cohort of 120 preterm infants. 55 per cent of the infants had Doppler echocardiographic evidence of ductal patency on the first day of life and this proportion fell to 30 per cent on the second day and 21 per cent on the third day. The incidence remained constant for the rest of the first week. Infants with PDA were significantly more likely to develop periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) than infants without PDA, but the incidence of periventricular haemorrhage was not increased. The cerebral haemodynamic effects of ductal patency were evaluated. Infants with PVL were found to have a significantly higher incidence of retrograde flow in the anterior cerebral artery during diastole, but the study was unable to demonstrate any significant difference in cerebral blood flow velocity between the infants with and without PDA.
    Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 06/1990; 32(5):386-93. · 3.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thirty preterm infants (birth weight < 1500 gm) treated with Surfactant TA for the respiratory distress syndrome, who had no complicating clinical problems other than ductal patency, were studied by serial Doppler flow examinations to determine the effects of early left-to-right shunt through the patent ductus arteriosus on the left ventricular output and organ blood flows. Doppler flow variables in 15 infants with a hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (hsPDA) were compared with those in 15 subjects without hsPDA matched for age, body weight, and gestational age. Infants with hsPDA had significantly higher left ventricular output and significantly lower blood flow volume in the abdominal aorta, and lower temporal mean blood flow velocities, with concomitant increases in the relative vascular resistance in the celiac artery, superior mesenteric artery, and renal artery. Pulsatility indexes of these vessels and the anterior cerebral artery were significantly higher in the hsPDA group, but the temporal mean blood flow velocities in the anterior cerebral artery and its vascular resistance were not significantly different between the two groups. After closure of the patent ductus arterious was achieved with mefenamic acid therapy, alterations in Doppler flow variables in the hsPDA group reverted to the levels seen in the group without hsPDA. These results suggest that despite large left-to-right ductal shunting, the heart of the preterm infant is capable of mounting a compensatory increase of cardiac output sufficient to maintain unchanged cerebral blood flow, but is unable to maintain postductal organ blood flows because of decreased perfusion pressure (ductal steal) and localized increase in vascular resistance.
    Journal of Pediatrics 08/1994; 125(2):270-7. DOI:10.1016/S0022-3476(94)70210-1 · 3.79 Impact Factor