7-Alkyl-3-benzylcoumarins: A Versatile Scaffold for the Development of Potent and Selective Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists and Antagonists.
ABSTRACT A series of 7-alkyl-3-benzylcoumarins was designed, synthesized, and tested at cannabinoid CB(1) and CB(2) receptors in radioligand binding and cAMP accumulation studies. 7-Alkyl-3-benzylcoumarins were found to constitute a versatile scaffold for obtaining potent CB receptor ligands with high potency at either CB(1) or CB(2) and a broad spectrum of efficacies. Fine-tuning of compound properties was achieved by small modifications of the substitution pattern. The most potent compounds of the present series include 5-methoxy-3-(2-methylbenzyl)-7-pentyl-2H-chromen-2-one (19a, PSB-SB-1201), a selective CB(1)antagonist (K(i) CB(1) 0.022 μM), 5-methoxy-3-(2-methoxybenzyl)-7-pentyl-2H-chromen-2-one (21a, PSB-SB-1202), a dual CB(1)/CB(2)agonist (CB(1)K(i) 0.032 μM, EC(50) 0.056 μM; CB(2)K(i) 0.049 μM, EC(50) 0.014 μM), 5-hydroxy-3-(2-hydroxybenzyl)-7-(2-methyloct-2-yl)-2H-chromen-2-one (25b, PSB-SB-1203), a dual CB(1)/CB(2) ligand that blocks CB(1) but activates CB(2) receptors (CB(1)K(i) 0.244 μM; CB(2)K(i) 0.210 μM, EC(50) 0.054 μM), and 7-(1-butylcyclopentyl)-5-hydroxy-3-(2-hydroxybenzyl)-2H-chromen-2-one (27b, PSB-SB-1204), a selective CB(2) receptor agonist (CB(1)K(i) 1.59 μM; CB(2)K(i) 0.068 μM, EC(50) 0.048 μM).
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ABSTRACT: Semiochemicals are natural products occurring in plants, bacteria or animals which function as carriers of a special message. Depending on the mode of function of the semiochemicals, they are divided into pheromones that trigger a response in members of the same species and allelochemicals (kairomones, allomones) that act between individuals of different species. Semiochemicals are very important compounds that influence the behavior of plants and animals and their adaption to a changing environment. As their importance for plants, animals and the ecological system itself is huge, the synthetic access to these chemicals, their precursors and derivatives is of high interest. Beyond novel strategies for the construction of semiochemical skeletons, combinatorial methods have been implemented to synthesize medium-sized and large-sized libraries that enable diverse modifications of the active compounds. These combinatorial approaches allow the screening for more active compounds and they elucidate the mode of action of the semiochemical or of the biological target. This review summarizes the state of the art procedures for the synthesis of important skeletons appearing in semiochemicals and gives special synthetic procedures for selected examples if the procedure is suitable for a general transfer to the synthesis of derivatives. The synthetic examples are given in the context of known active phytochemicals and their function that allows an evaluation of the given procedures with respect to the fulfillment of the common structural requirements (the structural diversity and flexibility) and the importance for the regulation of biological systems. Parts of this review were given in a lecture at the BioCom 12 in Cadiz, 2012.Phytochemistry Reviews 12/2013; · 4.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this study, alkynyl-coumarinyl ethers were developed as inhibitors of human monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B). A series of 31 new, ether-connected coumarin derivatives was synthesized via hydroxycoumarins, whose phenolic group at position 6, 7 or 8 was converted by means of the Mitsunobu reaction. The majority of the final products were produced from primary alcohols with a terminal alkyne group. The inhibitors were optimized with respect to the structure of the alkynyloxy chain and its position at the fused benzene ring as well as the residue at position 3 of the pyran-2H-one part. A hex-5-ynyloxy chain at position 7 was found to be particular advantageous. Among the 7-hex-5-ynyloxy-coumarins, the 3-methoxycarbonyl derivative 36 was characterized as a dual-acting inhibitor with IC50 values of less than 10nM towards MAO-A and MAO-B, and the 3-(4-methoxy)phenyl derivative 44 was shown to combine strong anti-MAO-B potency (IC50=3.0nM) and selectivity for MAO-B over MAO-A (selectivity >3400-fold).Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry 02/2014; · 2.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Presently, obesity is one of the major health problems in the developed as well as developing countries due to lack of physical work and increasing sedentary life style. Endocannabinoid system (ECS) and especially cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor play a key role in energy homeostasis. Food intake and energy storage is enhanced due to the stimulation of ECS hence, inhibition of ECS by blocking CB1 receptors could be a promising approach in the treatment of obesity. Rimonabant, a diaryl pyrazole was the first potent and selective CB1 receptor antagonist that was introduced into the market in 2006 but was withdrawn in 2008 due to its psychiatric side effects. Researchers all over the world are interested to develop peripherally acting potent and selective CB1 receptor antagonists having a better pharmacokinetic profile and therapeutic index. In this development process, pyrazole ring of rimonabant has been replaced by different bioisosteric scaffolds like pyrrole, imidazole, triazole, pyrazoline, pyridine etc. Variations in substituents around the pyrazole ring have also been done. New strategies were also employed for minimizing the psychiatric side effects by making more polar and less lipophilic antagonists/inverse agonists along with neutral antagonists acting peripherally. It has been observed that some of the peripherally acting compounds do not show adverse effects and could be used as potential leads for the further design of selective CB1 receptor antagonists. Chemical modification strategies used for the development of selective CB1 receptor antagonists are discussed here in this review.European journal of medicinal chemistry 04/2014; 79C:298-339. · 3.27 Impact Factor