Standardized Methods and Quality Control Limits for Agar and Broth Microdilution Susceptibility Testing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma hominis, and Ureaplasma urealyticum.

Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.
Journal of clinical microbiology (Impact Factor: 4.23). 08/2012; 50(11):3542-7. DOI: 10.1128/JCM.01439-12
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT An international multilaboratory collaborative study was conducted to develop standard media and consensus methods for the performance and quality control of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma hominis, and Ureaplasma urealyticum using broth microdilution and agar dilution techniques. A reference strain from the American Type Culture Collection was designated for each species, which was to be used for quality control purposes. Repeat testing of replicate samples of each reference strain by participating laboratories utilizing both methods and different lots of media enabled a 3- to 4-dilution MIC range to be established for drugs in several different classes, including tetracyclines, macrolides, ketolides, lincosamides, and fluoroquinolones. This represents the first multilaboratory collaboration to standardize susceptibility testing methods and to designate quality control parameters to ensure accurate and reliable assay results for mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas that infect humans.

1 Bookmark
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Both the diagnosis and treatment of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in children are currently facing two main challenges: a relatively high carriage in asymptomatic children, and a worldwide increase in macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae (MRMP). This review focuses on the scientific and clinical implications of these crucial issues. Recent studies have indicated that the prevalence of M. pneumoniae in the upper respiratory tract is similar among asymptomatic, healthy children and children with a symptomatic respiratory tract infection, and that current diagnostic procedures for M. pneumoniae are unable to differentiate between bacterial carriage and infection. It is therefore possible that the burden of M. pneumoniae-associated disease is overestimated. Another phenomenon that has an important impact on the treatment of M. pneumoniae infections is the rapid worldwide emergence of MRMP isolates. The current diagnostic procedures for M. pneumoniae cannot discern between bacterial carriage and infection in a clinically relevant time frame. It is therefore imperative that these procedures be modified such as to unambiguously detect symptomatic M. pneumoniae infections. Moreover, the emergence of MRMP necessitates the application of methods to detect macrolide resistance as well as the implementation of restrictive policies regarding the use of macrolides.
    Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 04/2014; · 5.03 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ureaplasma urealyticum is a fastidious bacterium usually residing in the female genitourinary tract. We present an exceedingly complicated case of a brain abscess secondary to mastoiditis by U. urealyticum in an adult hypogammaglobulinemic patient after rituximab treatment 3 years earlier.
    Journal of clinical microbiology 02/2014; 52(2):695-8. · 4.23 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ureaplasmas are the microorganisms most frequently isolated from the amniotic fluid of pregnant women and can cause chronic intrauterine infections. These tiny bacteria are thought to undergo rapid evolution and exhibit a hypermutatable phenotype; however, little is known about how ureaplasmas respond to selective pressures in utero. Using an ovine model of chronic intra-amniotic infection, we investigated if exposure of ureaplasmas to sub-inhibitory concentrations of erythromycin could induce phenotypic or genetic indicators of macrolide resistance. At 55 days gestation, 12 pregnant ewes received an intra-amniotic injection of a non-clonal, clinical U. parvum strain, followed by: (i) erythromycin treatment (IM, 30 mg/kg/day, n = 6); or (ii) saline (IM, n = 6) at 100 days gestation. Fetuses were then delivered surgically at 125 days gestation. Despite injecting the same inoculum into all ewes, significant differences between amniotic fluid and chorioamnion ureaplasmas were detected following chronic intra-amniotic infection. Numerous polymorphisms were observed in domain V of the 23S rRNA gene of ureaplasmas isolated from the chorioamnion (but not the amniotic fluid), resulting in a mosaic-like sequence. Chorioamnion isolates also harboured the macrolide resistance genes erm(B) and msr(D) and were associated with variable roxithromycin minimum inhibitory concentrations. Remarkably, this variability occurred independently of exposure of ureaplasmas to erythromycin, suggesting that low-level erythromycin exposure does not induce ureaplasmal macrolide resistance in utero. Rather, the significant differences observed between amniotic fluid and chorioamnion ureaplasmas suggest that different anatomical sites may select for ureaplasma sub-types within non-clonal, clinical strains. This may have implications for the treatment of intrauterine ureaplasma infections.
    Biology of Reproduction 12/2013; · 3.45 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 16, 2014