aDepartment of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio bDepartment of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California cDepartment of Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology, Loyola University of Chicago Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, Illinois dDivision of Epidemiology, Human Genetics and Environmental Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston School of Public Health, Houston, Texas eDivision of Biostatistics, Washington University in St Louis School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri fDepartment of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland gDivision of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi iDepartment of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute for Human Genetics, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA.
Genetic variants in 296 genes in regions identified through admixture mapping of hypertension, BMI, and lipids were assessed for association with hypertension, blood pressure (BP), BMI, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C).
This study identified coding SNPs identified from HapMap2 data that were located in genes on chromosomes 5, 6, 8, and 21, wherein ancestry association evidence for hypertension, BMI, or HDL-C was identified in previous admixture mapping studies. Genotyping was performed in 1733 unrelated African-Americans from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute's Family Blood Pressure Project, and gene-based association analyses were conducted for hypertension, SBP, DBP, BMI, and HDL-C. A gene score based on the number of minor alleles of each SNP in a gene was created and used for gene-based regression analyses, adjusting for age, age, sex, local marker ancestry, and BMI, as applicable. An individual's African ancestry estimated from 2507 ancestry-informative markers was also adjusted for to eliminate any confounding due to population stratification.
CXADR (rs437470) on chromosome 21 was associated with SBP and DBP with or without adjusting for local ancestry (P < 0.0006). F2RL1 (rs631465) on chromosome 5 was associated with BMI (P = 0.0005). Local ancestry in these regions was associated with the respective traits as well.
This study suggests that CXADR and F2RL1 likely play important roles in BP and obesity variation, respectively; and these findings are consistent with those of other studies, so replication and functional analyses are necessary.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic admixture has been utilized as a tool for identifying loci associated with complex traits and diseases in recently admixed populations such as African Americans. In particular, admixture mapping is an efficient approach to identifying genetic basis for those complex diseases with substantial racial or ethnic disparities. Though current advances in admixture mapping algorithms may utilize the entire panel of SNPs, providing ancestry-informative markers (AIMs) that can differentiate parental populations and estimate ancestry proportions in an admixed population may particularly benefit admixture mapping in studies of limited samples, help identify unsuitable individuals (e.g., through genotyping the most informative ancestry markers) before starting large genome-wide association studies (GWAS), or guide larger scale targeted deep re-sequencing for determining specific disease-causing variants. Defining panels of AIMs based on commercial, high-throughput genotyping platforms will facilitate the utilization of these platforms for simultaneous admixture mapping of complex traits and diseases, in addition to conventional GWAS. Here, we describe AIMs detected based on the Shannon Information Content (SIC) or Fst for African Americans with genome-wide coverage that were selected from ∼2.3 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covered by the Affymetrix Axiom Pan-African array, a newly developed genotyping platform optimized for individuals of African ancestry.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wild populations of northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus; hereafter bobwhite) have declined across nearly all of their U.S. range, and despite their importance as an experimental wildlife model for ecotoxicology studies, no bobwhite draft genome assembly currently exists. Herein, we present a bobwhite draft de novo genome assembly with annotation, comparative analyses including genome-wide analyses of divergence with the chicken (Gallus gallus) and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) genomes, and coalescent modeling to reconstruct the demographic history of the bobwhite for comparison to other birds currently in decline (i.e., scarlet macaw; Ara macao). More than 90% of the assembled bobwhite genome was captured within <40,000 final scaffolds (N50 = 45.4 Kb) despite evidence for approximately 3.22 heterozygous polymorphisms per Kb, and three annotation analyses produced evidence for >14,000 unique genes and proteins. Bobwhite analyses of divergence with the chicken and zebra finch genomes revealed many extremely conserved gene sequences, and evidence for lineage-specific divergence of noncoding regions. Coalescent models for reconstructing the demographic history of the bobwhite and the scarlet macaw provided evidence for population bottlenecks which were temporally coincident with human colonization of the New World, the late Pleistocene collapse of the megafauna, and the last glacial maximum. Demographic trends predicted for the bobwhite and the scarlet macaw also were concordant with how opposing natural selection strategies (i.e., skewness in the r-/K-selection continuum) would be expected to shape genome diversity and the effective population sizes in these species, which is directly relevant to future conservation efforts.
PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e90240. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0090240 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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