Opposing Roles for Complement Component C5a in Tumor Progression and the Tumor Microenvironment
Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 4.92). 08/2012; 189(6):2985-94. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.1200846
Promoting complement (C) activation may enhance immunological mechanisms of anti-tumor Abs for tumor destruction. However, C activation components, such as C5a, trigger inflammation, which can promote tumor growth. We addressed the role of C5a on tumor growth by transfecting both human carcinoma and murine lymphoma with mouse C5a. In vitro growth kinetics of C5a, control vector, or parental cells revealed no significant differences. Tumor-bearing mice with C5a-transfected xenografted tumor cells had significantly less tumor burden as compared with control vector tumors. NK cells and macrophages infiltrated C5a-expressing tumors with significantly greater frequency, whereas vascular endothelial growth factor, arginase, and TNF-α production were significantly less. Tumor-bearing mice with high C5a-producing syngeneic lymphoma cells had significantly accelerated tumor progression with more Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) myeloid cells in the spleen and overall decreased CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in the tumor, tumor-draining lymph nodes, and the spleen. In contrast, tumor-bearing mice with low C5a-producing lymphoma cells had a significantly reduced tumor burden with increased IFN-γ-producing CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in the spleen and tumor-draining lymph nodes. These studies suggest concentration of local C5a within the tumor microenvironment is critical in determining its role in tumor progression.
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ABSTRACT: Allergic asthma is a chronic disease of the airways in which maladaptive Th2 and Th17 immune responses drive airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), eosinophilic and neutrophilic airway inflammation and mucus overproduction. Airway epithelial and pulmonary vascular endothelial cells in concert with different resident and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) play critical roles in allergen sensing and consecutive activation of TH cells and their differentiation toward TH2 and TH17 effector or regulatory T cells (Treg). Further, myeloid-derived regulatory cells (MDRC) act on TH cells and either suppress or enhance their activation. The complement-derived anaphylatoxins (AT) C3a and C5a are generated during initial antigen encounter and regulate the development of maladaptive immunity at allergen sensitization. Here, we will review the complex role of ATs in activation and modulation of different DC populations, MDRCs and CD4+ TH cells. We will also discuss the potential impact of ATs on the regulation of the pulmonary stromal compartment as an important means to regulate DC functions.Seminars in Immunology 05/2013; 25(1). DOI:10.1016/j.smim.2013.04.009 · 5.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: For decades, complement has been recognized as an effector arm of the immune system that contributes to the destruction of tumor cells. In fact, many therapeutic strategies have been proposed that are based on the intensification of complement-mediated responses against tumors. However, recent studies have challenged this paradigm by demonstrating a tumor-promoting role for complement. Cancer cells seem to be able to establish a convenient balance between complement activation and inhibition, taking advantage of complement initiation without suffering its deleterious effects. Complement activation may support chronic inflammation, promote an immunosuppressive microenvironment, induce angiogenesis, and activate cancer-related signaling pathways. In this context, inhibition of complement activation would be a therapeutic option for treating cancer. This concept is relatively new and deserves closer attention. In this article, we summarize the mechanisms of complement activation on cancer cells, the cancer-promoting effect of complement initiation, and the rationale behind the use of complement inhibition as a therapeutic strategy against cancer.Seminars in Immunology 05/2013; 25(1). DOI:10.1016/j.smim.2013.04.001 · 5.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aside from its classical role in fighting infections, complement is an important, although poorly understood, component of the tumor microenvironment. In particular, the tumor growth-regulatory activities of complement remain under debate. To assess the role of the complement system in the progression of autochthonous mammary carcinomas, we have crossed complement component 3 (C3)-deficient (C3(-/-) ) BALB/c male mice with BALB/c females expressing the activated rat Her2/neu oncogene (neuT). Although neuT transgenic mice develop spontaneous mammary cancers with 100% penetrance, a significantly shorter tumor latency (i.e., earlier onset of the first palpable tumor), a higher frequency of multiple tumors (multiplicity), and a dramatic increase in the tumor growth rate were found in neuT-C3(-/-) animals. The accelerated tumor onset observed in neuT-C3(-/-) mice was paralleled by an earlier onset of spontaneous lung metastases and by an increase in Her2 expression levels, primarily on the surface of tumor cells. The percentage of immune cells infiltrating neuT carcinomas was similar in C3-deficient and C3-proficient mice, with the exception of a significant increase in the frequency of regulatory T cells in neuT-C3(-/-) tumors. Of particular interest, the enhanced immunosuppression imparted by C3 deficiency clearly influenced the immunogenic phenotype of autochthonous mammary tumors as neuT-C3(-/-) malignant cells transplanted into syngeneic immunocompetent hosts gave rise to lesions with a significantly delayed kinetics and reduced incidence as compared with cells obtained from neuT C3-proficient tumors. Finally, increased blood vessel permeability was evident in neuT-C3(-/-) tumors, although a similar number of tumor vessels was found in neuT and neuT-C3(-/-) lesions. Altogether, these data suggest that complement plays a crucial role in the immunosurveillance and, possibly, the immunoediting of Her2-driven autochthonous mammary tumors.OncoImmunology 09/2013; 2(9):e26137. DOI:10.4161/onci.26137 · 6.27 Impact Factor
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