RhoC impacts the metastatic potential and abundance of breast cancer stem cells.
ABSTRACT Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been shown to promote tumorigenesis of many tumor types, including breast, although their relevance to cancer metastasis remains unclear. While subpopulations of CSCs required for metastasis have been identified, to date there are no known molecular regulators of breast CSC (BCSC) metastasis. Here we identify RhoC GTPase as an important regulator of BCSC metastasis, and present evidence suggesting that RhoC also modulates the frequency of BCSCs within a population. Using an orthotopic xenograft model of spontaneous metastasis we discover that RhoC is both necessary and sufficient to promote SUM149 and MCF-10A BCSC metastasis--often independent from primary tumor formation--and can even induce metastasis of non-BCSCs within these cell lines. The relationship between RhoC and BCSCs persists in breast cancer patients, as expression of RhoC and the BCSC marker ALDH1 are highly correlated in clinical specimens. These results suggest new avenues to combating the deadliest cells driving the most lethal stage of breast cancer progression.
- SourceAvailable from: Wendy Ann Woodward[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Reported rates of local failure after adjuvant radiation for women with inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) and triple-negative non-IBC are higher than those of women with receptor-expressing non-IBC. These high rates of locoregional recurrence are potentially influenced by the contribution of radioresistant cancer stem cells to these cancers. Statins have been shown to target stem cells and improve disease-free survival among IBC patients. We examined simvastatin radiosensitization of multiple subtypes of breast cancer cell lines in vitro in monolayer and mammosphere-based clonogenic assays and examined the therapeutic benefit of statin use on local control after postmastectomy radiation (PMRT) among IBC patients. We found that simvastatin radiosensitizes mammosphere-initiating cells (MICs) of IBC cell lines (MDA-IBC3, SUM149, SUM190) and of the metaplastic, non-IBC triple-negative receptor cell line (SUM159). However, simvastatin radioprotects MICs of non-IBC cell lines MCF-7 and SKBR3. In a retrospective clinical study of 519 IBC patients treated with PMRT, 53 patients used a statin. On univariate analysis, actuarial 3-year local recurrence-free survival (LRFS) was higher among statin users, and on multivariate analysis, triple negative breast cancer, absence of lymphatic invasion, neoadjuvant pathological tumor response to preoperative chemotherapy, and statin use were independently associated with higher LRFS. In conclusion, patients with IBC and triple-negative non-IBC breast cancer have the highest rates of local failure, and there are no available known radiosensitizers. We report significant improvement in local control after PMRT among statin users with IBC and significant radiosensitization across triple-negative and IBC cell lines of multiple subtypes using simvastatin. These data suggest that simvastatin should be justified as a radiosensitizing agent by a prospective clinical trial.STEM CELLS TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE 05/2014; 3(7). · 3.60 Impact Factor
- The Breast 11/2013; 22:S25-S26. · 2.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a common cancer with poor prognosis. It has been hypothesized that Oct4 positive radioresistant stem cells may be responsible for tumor recurrence. Hence, we evaluated Oct4 expression in ESCC in pre-treatment, post neo-adjuvant residual and post-surgical recurrent tumours. Materials and Methods: Endoscopic mucosal biopsies were used to study Oct4 expression and the observations were correlated with histological tumor grades, patient data and clinical background. Results: All patients presented with dysphagia with male predominance and a wide age range. Majority of the patients had intake of mixed diet, history of alcohol and tobacco intake was documented in less than half of the patients. Oct 4 expression was significantly higher in poorly differentiated (PDSCC) and basaloid (BSCC) subtypes than the other better differentiated tumor morphology. Oct4 was also expressed by adjoining esophageal mucosa showing low grade dysplasia and basal cell hyperplasia (BCH). Biopsies in PDSCC and BSCC groups were more likely to show a positive band for Oct4 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Dysplasia and BCH mucosa also showed Oct4 positivity by PCR. All mucosal biopsies with normal morphology were negative for Oct4. Number of tissue samples showing Oct4 positivity by PCR was higher than that by the conventional immunohistochemistry (p>0.05). Oct4 expression pattern correlated only with tumor grading, not with other parameters including the clinical background or patient data. Conclusions: Our observations highlighted a possible role of Oct4 in identifying putative cancer stem cells in ESCC pathobiology and response to treatment. The implications are either in vivo existence of Oct4 positive putative cancer stem cells in ESCC or acquisition of cancer stem cell properties by tumor cells as a response to treatment given, resulting ultimately an uncontrolled cell proliferation and treatment failure.Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 04/2014; 15(8):3519-24. · 1.50 Impact Factor