Dose sparing intradermal trivalent influenza (2010/2011) vaccination overcomes reduced immunogenicity of the 2009 H1N1 strain.
ABSTRACT We hypothesized that low dose intradermal vaccination of the trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) delivered by the MicronJet600™ (NanoPass Technologies, Israel) would be non-inferior to the full dose intramuscular and mid dose Intanza(®) vaccination in the elderly and the chronically ill adults.
We performed a prospective randomized trial on elderly and chronically ill adults. Subjects were randomly assigned into 4 groups. Groups ID3 and ID9 received reduced dose ID TIV (3μg and 9μg of hemagglutinin (HA) per strain respectively) delivered by MicronJet600™ (NanoPass Technologies, Israel). Group INT9 received reduced dose ID TIV (9μg) delivered by Becton Dickinson's Soluvia™ device (Intanza(®)9, Sanofi-Pasteur, France). Control group IM15 received a full dose IM TIV (15μg). We measured antibody titers by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) and microneutralization (MN) assays at baseline and day 21.
Baseline characteristics for all groups were similar (group and sample sizes: ID3=63; ID9=68; INT9=65; and IM15=66). At day 21 post vaccination, the GMT ratio and the seroconversion rates difference for all three strains of the ID vaccine groups were non-inferior to the IM vaccine group. The seroconversion rate, seroprotection rate, and the GMT of the H1N1 strains by HAI and MN assays were significantly higher in the ID groups compared with the full dose IM vaccine group. The seroconversion rates of the H3N2 strain by HAI assay were also significantly higher in the ID groups when compared with the full dose IM group. Direct comparison among the three ID groups showed no significant differences. No serious adverse events related to vaccination were reported.
Dose-sparing ID TIV can overcome reduced immunogenicity of the H1N1 strain, and according to some measures, for the H3N2 strain. At risk subjects indicated for the TIV should be considered for intradermal immunization to compensate for reduced immunogenicity.
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ABSTRACT: A novel avian influenza A(H7N9) virus has emerged to infect humans in eastern China since 2013. An effective vaccine is needed because of the high mortality despite antiviral treatment and intensive care. We sought to develop an effective vaccine for A(H7N9) virus. The HA2 subunit was chosen as the vaccine antigen because it is highly conserved among the human A(H7N9) virus strains. Moreover, in silico analysis predicted two immunogenic regions within the HA2 subunit that may contain potential human B-cell epitopes. The HA2 fragment was readily expressed in Escherichia coli. In BALB/c mice, intraperitoneal immunization with two doses of HA2 with imiquimod (2-dose-imiquimod) elicited the highest geometric mean titer (GMT) of anti-HA2 IgG (12699), which was greater than that of two doses of HA2 without imiquimod (2-dose-no-adjuvant) (6350), one dose of HA2 with imiquimod (1-dose-imiquimod) (2000) and one dose of HA2 without imiquimod (1-dose-no-adjuvant) (794). The titer of anti-HA2 IgG was significantly higher in the 1-dose-imiquimod group than the 1-dose-no-adjuvant group. Although both hemagglutination inhibition titers and microneutralization titers were below 10, serum from immunized mice showed neutralizing activity in a fluorescent focus microneutralization assay. In a viral challenge experiment, the 2-dose-imiquimod group had the best survival rate (100 %), followed by the 2-dose-no-adjuvant group (90 %), the 1-dose-imiquimod group (70 %) and the 1-dose-no-adjuvant group (40 %). The 2-dose-imiquimod group also had significantly lower mean pulmonary viral loads than the 1-dose-imiquimod, 1-dose-no-adjuvant and non-immunized groups. This recombinant A(H7N9)-HA2 vaccine should be investigated as a complement to egg- or cell-based live attenuated or subunit influenza vaccines.Archives of Virology 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00705-014-2314-x · 2.28 Impact Factor
Clinical Infectious Diseases 07/2014; DOI:10.1093/cid/ciu582 · 9.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: After polio eradication is achieved, the use of live-attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) must be discontinued because of the inherent risk of the Sabin strains to revert to neurovirulence and reacquire greater transmissibility that could potentially result in the reestablishment of polio transmission. In 2008, the World Health Assembly mandated that the World Health Organization establish a strategy for developing more-affordable inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) options for low-income countries. In 2012, the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on Immunization recommended universal IPV introduction as a risk-mitigation strategy before the phased cessation of OPV (starting with Sabin type 2) and emphasized the need for affordable IPV options. In 2013, SAGE reiterated the importance of attaining the long-term target price of IPV at approximately $0.5 per immunizing dose and encouraged accelerated efforts to develop lower-cost IPV options. This article outlines the 4-pronged approach that is being pursued to develop affordable options and provides an update on the current status and plans to make IPV affordable for developing-country use.The Journal of Infectious Diseases 11/2014; 210 Suppl 1:S459-64. DOI:10.1093/infdis/jiu128 · 5.78 Impact Factor