Article

Reduced Expression of Androgen Receptor and Myosin Heavy Chain mRNA in Cremaster Muscle of Boys with Nonsyndromic Cryptorchidism

Surgery/Urology and Nemours Biomedical Research, AI duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, Delaware.
The Journal of urology (Impact Factor: 3.75). 08/2012; 188(4 Suppl):1411-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.juro.2012.06.033
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To better define the developmental mechanisms of nonsyndromic cryptorchidism, we measured the expression of hormone receptor and muscle type specific mRNAs in target tissues of boys with and those without nonsyndromic cryptorchidism.
Prospectively collected cremaster muscle and/or hernia sac tissues from boys with congenital (79) or acquired (66) nonsyndromic cryptorchidism and hernia/hydrocele (controls, 84) were analyzed for hormone receptor (RXFP2, AR, ESR1, ESR2) and myosin heavy chain specific (MYH1, MYH2, MYH7) mRNA expression using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Log transformed mRNA, phenotype and feeding history data were statistically analyzed using Pearson's correlation, ANOVA and 2-sample t tests.
AR mRNA expression was higher in cremaster muscle than in sac tissue, and significantly lower in congenital and acquired nonsyndromic cryptorchidism cases vs controls (p <0.01). Type 1 (slow/cardiac) MYH7 mRNA expression was also significantly reduced in both nonsyndromic cryptorchidism groups (p ≤0.002), while a reduction in type 2 (fast) MYH2 expression was more modest and significant only for the congenital cryptorchidism group (p <0.05). Cremasteric MYH7 and AR levels were strongly correlated (r(2) = 0.751, p <0.001). MYH7 and ESR1 mRNA levels were higher and lower, respectively, in boys with nonsyndromic cryptorchidism who were fed soy formula. Expression of other genes was not measurable.
Our data suggest that boys with congenital and acquired nonsyndromic cryptorchidism differentially express AR and slow twitch specific MYH7 mRNA in the cremaster muscle, and that MYH7 expression is correlated with AR levels and soy formula use. These differences in gene expression may reflect aberrant hormonal signaling and/or innervation during development with the potential for secondary functional effects and failed testicular descent.

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