Exo- and Endoribonucleolytic Activities of Yeast Cytoplasmic and Nuclear RNA Exosomes Are Dependent on the Noncatalytic Core and Central Channel
ABSTRACT The RNA exosome is an essential multisubunit ribonuclease (RNase) that contributes to cytoplasmic and nuclear RNA decay and quality control. The 9-subunit exosome core (Exo9) features a prominent central channel formed by stacked asymmetric rings of six RNase PH-like proteins and three S1/KH domain proteins. Exo9 is catalytically inert but associates with Rrp44, an endoribonuclease and processive 3'→5' exoribonuclease, and Rrp6, a distributive 3'→5' exoribonuclease. We show that Exo9 and its central channel modulate all three yeast exosome RNase activities because channel occlusion attenuates RNA binding and RNase activities in vitro and fails to complement exosome functions in vivo. We find that Rrp6 stimulates Rrp44 RNase activities and that Rrp6 is inhibited by a mutation in the Rrp44 exoribonuclease active site in 11-subunit nuclear exosomes. These results suggest the exosome core and central channel is essential because it modulates each of the known RNase activities of the yeast RNA exosome.
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ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are essential for regulation of gene expression. Though numerous miRNAs have been identified by high-throughput sequencing, few precursor miRNAs (pre-miRNAs) are experimentally validated. Here we report a strategy for constructing high-throughput sequencing libraries enriched for full-length pre-miRNAs. We find widespread and extensive uridylation of Argonaute (Ago)-bound pre-miRNAs, which is primarily catalyzed by two terminal uridylyltransferases: TUT7 and TUT4. Uridylation by TUT7/4 not only polishes pre-miRNA 3' ends, but also facilitates their degradation by the exosome, preventing clogging of Ago with defective species. We show that the exosome exploits distinct substrate preferences of DIS3 and RRP6, its two catalytic subunits, to distinguish productive from defective pre-miRNAs. Furthermore, we identify a positive feedback loop formed by the exosome and TUT7/4 in triggering uridylation and degradation of Ago-bound pre-miRNAs. Our study reveals a pre-miRNA surveillance system that comprises TUT7, TUT4, and the exosome in quality control of miRNA synthesis.Molecular Cell 08/2014; 55(6). DOI:10.1016/j.molcel.2014.07.017
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ABSTRACT: The eukaryotic exosome exoribonuclease Rrp6 forms a complex with Rrp47 that functions in nuclear RNA quality control mechanisms, the degradation of cryptic unstable transcripts (CUTs), and in the 3' end maturation of stable RNAs. Stable expression of Rrp47 is dependent upon its interaction with the N-terminal domain of Rrp6 (Rrp6NT). To address the function of Rrp47 independently of Rrp6, we developed a DECOID (decreased expression of complexes by overexpression of interacting domains) strategy to resolve the Rrp6/Rrp47 complex in vivo and employed mpp6Δ and rex1Δ mutants that are synthetic lethal with loss-of-function rrp47 mutants. Strikingly, Rrp47 was able to function in mpp6Δ and rex1Δ mutants when separated from the catalytic and exosome-binding domains of Rrp6, whereas a truncated Rrp47 protein lacking its C-terminal region caused a block in cell growth. Northern analyses of the conditional mutants revealed a specific block in the 3' maturation of box C/D snoRNAs in the rex1 rrp47 mutant and widespread inhibition of Rrp6-mediated RNA surveillance processes in the mpp6 rrp47 mutant. In contrast, growth analyses and RNA northern blot hybridization analyses showed no effect on the rrp47Δ mutant upon overexpression of the Rrp6NT domain. These findings demonstrate that Rrp47 and Rrp6 have resolvable functions in Rrp6-mediated RNA surveillance and processing pathways. In addition, this study reveals a redundant requirement for Rrp6 or Rex1 in snoRNA maturation and demonstrates the effective use of the DECOID strategy for the resolution and functional analysis of protein complexes.RNA 10/2013; 19(12). DOI:10.1261/rna.039388.113
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ABSTRACT: RNA helicases are compact, machine-like proteins that can harness the energy of nucleoside triphosphate binding and hydrolysis to dynamically remodel RNA structures and protein-RNA complexes. Through such activities, helicases participate in virtually every process associated with the expression of genetic information. Often found as components of multi-enzyme assemblies, RNA helicases facilitate the processivity of RNA degradation, the remodelling of protein interactions during maturation of structured RNA precursors, and fidelity checks of RNA quality. In turn, the assemblies modulate and guide the activities of the helicases. We describe the roles of RNA helicases with a conserved "DExD/H box" sequence motif in representative examples of such machineries from bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. The recurrent occurrence of such helicases in complex assemblies throughout the course of evolution suggests a common requirement to meet cellular demands for the exquisite control of RNA metabolism.RNA biology 10/2012; 10(1). DOI:10.4161/rna.22270