Little is known about the treatment of breast cancer during pregnancy. We aimed to determine whether treatment for breast cancer during pregnancy is safe for both mother and child.
We recruited patients from seven European countries with a primary diagnosis of breast cancer during pregnancy; data were collected retrospectively if the patient was diagnosed before April, 2003 (when the registry began), or prospectively thereafter, irrespective of the outcome of pregnancy and the type and timing of treatment. The primary endpoint was fetal health for up to 4 weeks after delivery. The registry is ongoing. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00196833.
From April, 2003, to December, 2011, 447 patients were registered, 413 of whom had early breast cancer. Median age was 33 years (range 22-51). At the time of diagnosis, median gestational age was 24 weeks (range 5-40). 197 (48%) of 413 women received chemotherapy during pregnancy with a median of four cycles (range one to eight). 178 received an anthracycline, 15 received cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil, and 14 received a taxane. Birthweight was affected by chemotherapy exposure after adjustment for gestational age (p=0·018), but not by number of chemotherapy cycles (p=0·71). No statistical difference between the two groups was observed for premature deliveries before the 37th week of gestation. 40 (10%) of 386 infants had side-effects, malformations, or new-born complications; these events were more common in infants born before the 37th week of gestation than they were in infants born in the 37th week or later (31 [16%] of 191 infants vs nine [5%] of 195 infants; p=0·0002). In infants for whom maternal treatment was known, adverse events were more common in those who received chemotherapy in utero compared with those who were not exposed (31 [15%] of 203 vs seven [4%] of 170 infants; p=0·00045). Two infants died; both were exposed to chemotherapy and delivered prematurely, but both deaths were thought not to be related to treatment. Median disease-free survival for women with early breast cancer was 70·6 months (95% CI 62·1-105·5) in women starting chemotherapy during pregnancy and 94·4 months (lower 95% CI 64·4; upper 95% CI not yet reached) in women starting chemotherapy after delivery (unadjusted hazard ratio 1·13 [95% CI 0·76-1·69]; p=0·539).
Although our data show that infants exposed to chemotherapy in utero had a lower birthweight at gestational age than did those who were unexposed, and had more complications, these differences were not clinically significant and, since none of the infants was exposed to chemotherapy in the first trimester, were most likely related to premature delivery. Delay of cancer treatment did not significantly affect disease-free survival for mothers with early breast cancer. Because preterm birth was strongly associated with adverse events, a full-term delivery seems to be of paramount importance.
BANSS Foundation, Biedenkopf, Germany and the Belgian Cancer Plan, Ministry of Health, Belgium.
"Abbreviations: SGA small for gestational age, AGA average/appropriate for gestational age, LGA large for gestational age, PPROM preterm premature rupture of membranes, VSD ventricular septal defect, ASD atrial septal defect. other published studies have also reported an increased risk of preterm delivery in patients treated with chemotherapy for PABC (Smith et al. 2001; Loibl et al. 2012; Van Calsteren et al. 2010). In this series, the majority of preterm deliveries were planned to facilitate maternal therapy, e.g. to allow continuation of chemotherapy. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy poses unique challenges. Application of standard treatment algorithms is limited by lack of level I evidence from randomized trials. This study describes contemporary multidisciplinary treatment of pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) in an academic setting and explores early maternal and fetal outcomes. A search of the Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center clinical databases was performed to identify PABC cases. Sociodemographic, disease, pregnancy, and treatment information, as well as data on short-term maternal and fetal outcomes, were collected through retrospective chart review. 74 patients were identified, the majority with early-stage breast cancer. Most (73.5%) underwent surgical resection during pregnancy, including 40% with sentinel lymph node biopsy and 32% with immediate reconstruction. A total of 36 patients received anthracycline-based chemotherapy during pregnancy; of those, almost 20% were on a dose-dense schedule and 8.3% also received paclitaxel. 68 patients delivered liveborn infants; over half were delivered preterm (< 37 weeks), most scheduled to allow further maternal cancer therapy. For the infants with available data, all had normal Apgar scores and over 90% had birth weight >10(th) percentile. The rate of fetal malformations (4.4%) was not different than expected population rate. Within a multidisciplinary academic setting, PABC treatment followed contemporary algorithms without apparent increase in maternal or fetal adverse outcomes. A considerable number of preterm deliveries were observed, the majority planned to facilitate cancer therapy. Continued attention to maternal and fetal outcomes after PABC is required to determine the benefit of this delivery strategy.
"Thus, it is very unlikely that immediate reconstruction could increase the risk of obstetrical complications and miscarriages, compared to mastectomy without reconstruction. In our series the pregnancy outcomes were excellent , without obstetrical complications after surgery and with similar fetal outcome to what has been reported by other groups   . Three patients experienced a breast cancer-related event, one local recurrence and two distant relapses. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breast reconstruction after mastectomy is currently considered an essential component in managing breast cancer patients, particularly those diagnosed at a young age. However, no studies have been published on the feasibility of immediate breast reconstruction in patients diagnosed and operated during the course of gestation.
We retrospectively identified all breast cancer patients who were subjected to mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction during pregnancy at the European Institute of Oncology between 2002 and 2012. Patient demographics, gestational age at surgery, tumor stage, adjuvant treatment, details of the surgical procedures, surgical outcomes and fetal outcomes were analyzed.
A total of 78 patients with breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy were subjected to a surgical procedure during the course of gestation. Twenty-two patients had mastectomy; of whom 13 were subjected to immediate breast reconstruction. Twelve out of 13 patients had a two-stage procedure with tissue expander insertion. Median gestational age at surgery was 16 weeks. No major surgical complications were encountered. Only one patient elected to have an abortion, otherwise, no spontaneous abortions or pregnancy complications were reported. Median gestational age at delivery was 35 weeks (range: 32-40 weeks). No major congenital malformations were reported. At a median follow-up of 32 months, all patients are alive with no long-term surgical complications.
This is the first study of immediate breast reconstruction in pregnant breast cancer patients. Tissue expander insertion appears to ensure a short operative time, and does not seem to be associated with considerable morbidity to the patient or the fetus. Hence, it could be considered in the multidisciplinary management of women diagnosed with breast cancer during pregnancy.
Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland) 07/2013; 22(5). DOI:10.1016/j.breast.2013.06.005 · 2.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The concomitant occurrence of cancer and pregnancy is rare, and requires a multidisciplinary approach. The main parameters that may influence treatment selection are the opinion of the patient regarding a termination of pregnancy, the gestational term, the kind and the extension of the malignant disease and the risk induced by anti-cancer treatments for the foetus. Regarding medications, the initiation of chemotherapy, monoclonal antibodies or multi-kinase inhibitors may be necessary. The aim of this review article is to provide a synthesis of the available data in the English literature on the use of common chemotherapies and targeted agents in pregnant women.
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