Associations of markers of inflammation and coagulation with delirium during critical illness
ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To assess the associations between a priori-selected markers of inflammation and coagulation and delirium during critical illness. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, we collected blood from mechanically ventilated medical intensive care unit (ICU) patients and measured nine plasma markers of inflammation and coagulation. We assessed patients daily for delirium using the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU and used multivariable regression to analyze the associations between plasma markers and subsequent delirium, after adjusting for age, severity of illness, and sepsis. RESULTS: Among the 138 patients studied, with median age of 66 years and median Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II of 27, 107 (78 %) were delirious at some point during the study. Two markers of inflammation and one of coagulation were significantly associated with delirium. After adjusting for covariates, lower plasma concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and protein C were associated with increased probability of delirium (p = 0.04 and 0.01, respectively), and higher concentrations of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (sTNFR1) were associated with increased probability of delirium (p < 0.01). Concentrations of C-reactive protein (p = 0.82), myeloperoxidase (p = 0.11), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (p = 0.70), D-dimer (p = 0.83), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (p = 0.98), and Von Willebrand factor antigen (p = 0.65) were not associated with delirium. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, MMP-9, protein C, and sTNFR1 were independently associated with subsequent ICU delirium. These results suggest that specific aspects of inflammation and coagulation may play a role in the evolution of delirium during critical illness and that these markers should be examined in larger studies of ICU patients.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to develop a reliable tool for daily mental status classification in intensive care unit (ICU) patients for research purposes. Secondly, to identify patients with single, 1-day episodes of delirium and to compare them with patients having more delirium days or episodes. A 5-step algorithm was designed, which includes Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale and Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU scores from bedside nurses, initiation of delirium treatment, chart review, and the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU administered by researchers. This algorithm was validated against a reference standard of delirium experts. Subsequently, a cohort study was performed in patients admitted to a mixed ICU. In 65 paired observations, the algorithm had 0.75 sensitivity and 0.85 specificity. Applying the algorithm, interobserver agreement was high with mean Fleiss κ of 0.94 (5 raters) and 0.97 (4 raters). In the cohort study, 1112 patients were included of whom 535 (48%) became delirious. Single, 1-day episodes occurred in 43% of the delirious patients, whom were characterized by lower age compared with those with more delirium days. The algorithm for daily mental status classification seems to be a valid tool. In a substantial proportion of patients, delirium occurs only once during ICU admission lasting only 1 day. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Journal of Critical Care 11/2014; 30(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jcrc.2014.10.031 · 2.19 Impact Factor
BMC Geriatrics 12/2015; 15(1). DOI:10.1186/s12877-015-0006-3 · 2.00 Impact Factor
Anesthesia & Analgesia 11/2014; 119(5):1011-1013. DOI:10.1213/ANE.0000000000000412 · 3.42 Impact Factor