The adult mammalian brain has a remarkable capacity to learn in both the perceptual and motor domains through the formation and consolidation of memories. Such practice-enabled procedural learning results in perceptual and motor skill improvements. Here, we examine evidence supporting the notion that perceptual and motor learning in humans exhibit analogous properties, including similarities in temporal dynamics and the interactions between primary cortical and higher-order brain areas. These similarities may point to the existence of a common general mechanism for learning in humans.
"tive phases that depend on two crucial factors : the amount of repetitions and the elapsed time , including the time between the practice sessions , sometimes in sleep ( Karni and Sagi , 1993 ; Karni et al . , 1995 , 1998 ; Stickgold et al . , 2000 ; Korman et al . , 2003 ; Ofen - Noy et al . , 2003 ; Walker et al . , 2003 ; Press et al . , 2005 ; Censor et al . , 2012 ) . Skillful motor performance was taken to imply the existence of an underlying " motor plan " at different abstraction levels ( Clegg et al . , 1998 ; Chafee and Ashe , 2007 ) . In its advanced form , a motor procedure can be viewed as a fixed ( but changeable ) sequence of motor instructions ( Hikosaka et al . , 2002 ) . Consequently"
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with schizophrenia have deficits in some types of procedural learning. Several mechanisms contribute to this learning in healthy individuals, including statistical and sequence-learning. To find preserved and impaired learning mechanisms in schizophrenia, we studied the time course and characteristics of implicitly introduced sequence-learning (SRT task) in 15 schizophrenia patients (seven mild and eight severe) and nine healthy controls, in short sessions over multiple days (5-22). The data show speed gains of similar magnitude for all groups, but the groups differed in overall speed and in the characteristics of the learning. By analyzing the data according to its spatial-position and temporal-order components, we provide evidence for two types of learning that could differentiate the groups: while the learning of the slower, severe group was dominated by statistical learning, the control group moved from a fast learning phase of statistical-related performance to subsequence learning (chunking). Our findings oppose the naïve assumption that a similar gain of speed reflects a similar learning process; they indicate that the slower performance reflects the activation of a different motor plan than does the faster performance; and demonstrate that statistical learning and subsequence learning are two successive stages in implicit sequence learning, with chunks inferred from prior statistical computations. Our results indicate that statistical learning is intact in patients with schizophrenia, but is slower to develop in the severe patients. We suggest that this slow learning rate and the associated slow performance contribute to their deficit in developing sequence-specific learning by setting a temporal constraint on developing higher order associations.
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 09/2015; 9:475. DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2015.00475 · 3.63 Impact Factor
"Incidentally, one should also note that while the orientation discrimination task employed by Schiltz et al. (1999) tapped a form of slow-incremental learning, occurring over the course of many sessions and thousands of trials, this was not the case in the study of Vaina et al. (1998), where learning at the global motion discrimination task was characterized within minutes of performance and tens-to-few hundreds of trials (fast learning). It is widely maintained that fast and slow perceptual learning phenomena represent distinct forms of learning, presumably tapping different sub-components of the learning process and perhaps reflecting changes of a different nature and occurring within different brain circuits (Censor et al., 2012; Karni & Bertini, 1997). In this regard we underscore that the results presented here indicate that the cerebellum is engaged for visual perceptual learning occurring on both time scales. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Visual perceptual learning is widely assumed to reflect plastic changes occurring along the cerebro-cortical visual pathways, including at the earliest stages of processing, though increasing evidence indicates that higher-level brain areas are also involved. Here we addressed the possibility that the cerebellum plays an important role in visual perceptual learning. Within the realm of motor control, the cerebellum supports learning of new skills and re-calibration of motor commands when movement execution is consistently perturbed (adaptation). Growing evidence indicates that the cerebellum is also involved in cognition and mediates forms of cognitive learning. Therefore, the obvious question arises whether the cerebellum might play a similar role in learning and adaptation within the perceptual domain. We explored a possible deficit in visual perceptual learning (and adaptation) in patients with cerebellar damage using variants of a novel motion extrapolation, psychophysical paradigm. Compared to their age- and gender-matched controls, patients with focal damage to the posterior (but not the anterior) cerebellum showed strongly diminished learning, in terms of both rate and amount of improvement over time. Consistent with a double-dissociation pattern, patients with focal damage to the anterior cerebellum instead showed more severe clinical motor deficits, indicative of a distinct role of the anterior cerebellum in the motor domain. The collected evidence demonstrates that a pure form of slow-incremental visual perceptual learning is crucially dependent on the intact cerebellum, bearing the notion that the human cerebellum acts as a learning device for motor, cognitive and perceptual functions. We interpret the deficit in terms of an inability to fine-tune predictive models of the incoming flow of visual perceptual input over time. Moreover, our results suggest a strong dissociation between the role of different portions of the cerebellum in motor vs. non-motor functions, with only the posterior lobe being responsible for learning in the perceptual domain.
"This result showed that learning difficulty in children with dyslexia was not confined to abstract rule-based knowledge learning (Folia et al., 2008) and association learning (Li et al., 2009) but also occurred in learning to discriminate very basic visual features; this extended the understanding of learning deficits in individuals with dyslexia to basic perceptual learning. Further experimentation needs to clarify whether it is a separate type of learning difficulty or if it is a deficit associated with implicit motor sequence learning rooted in a common mechanism (Censor et al., 2012). Given that the SOA values in TDT are considered as time thresholds within which observers are able to capture features of objects and form object representation (Bergen & Julesz, 1983; Sagi & Julesz, 1985), the significantly higher SOAs for readers with dyslexia therefore demonstrated that they were unable to extract the visual features of the presented stimuli as efficiently as the controls. "
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