Hospital care of childhood traumatic brain injury in the United States, 1997-2009: A neurosurgical perspective: Clinical article
The goal in this paper was to study hospital care for childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) in a nationwide population base.
Data were acquired from the Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) for the years 1997, 2000, 2003, 2006, and 2009. Admission for TBI was defined by any ICD-9-CM diagnostic code for TBI. Admission for severe TBI was defined by a principal diagnostic code for TBI and a procedural code for mechanical ventilation; admissions ending in discharge home alive in less than 4 days were excluded.
Estimated raw and population-based rates of admission for all TBI, for severe TBI, for death from severe TBI, and for major and minor neurosurgical procedures fell steadily during the study period. Median hospital charges for severe TBI rose steadily, even after adjustment for inflation, but estimated nationwide hospital charges were stable. Among 14,932 actual admissions for severe TBI captured in the KID, case mortality was stable through the study period, at 23.9%. In a multivariate analysis, commercial insurance (OR 0.86, CI 0.77-0.95; p = 0.004) and white race (OR 0.78, CI 0.70-0.87; p < 0.0005) were associated with lower mortality rates, but there was no association between these factors and commitment of resources, as measured by hospital charges or rates of major procedures. Increasing median income of home ZIP code was associated with higher hospital charges and higher rates of major and minor procedures. Only 46.8% of admissions for severe TBI were coded for a neurosurgical procedure of any kind. Fewer admissions were coded for minor neurosurgical procedures than anticipated, and the state-by-state variance in rates of minor procedures was twice as great as for major procedures. Possible explanations for the "missing ICP monitors" are discussed.
Childhood brain trauma is a shrinking sector of neurosurgical hospital practice. Racial and economic disparities in mortality rates were confirmed in this study, but they were not explained by available metrics of resource commitment. Vigilance is required to continue to supply neurosurgical expertise to the multidisciplinary care process.
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ABSTRACT: Objective: Little guidance exists for discussing prognosis in early acute care with parents following children's severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Providers' beliefs about truth-telling can shape what is said, how it is said and how providers respond to parents. Methods: This study was part of a large qualitative study conducted in the US (42 parents/37 families) following children's moderate-to-severe TBI (2005-2007). Ethnography of speaking was used to analyse interviews describing early acute care following children's severe TBI (29 parents/25 families). Results: Parents perceived that: (a) parents were disadvantaged by provider delivery; (b) negative outcome values dominated some provider's talk; (c) truth-telling involves providers acknowledging all possibilities; (d) framing the child's prognosis with negative medical certainty when there is some uncertainty could damage parent-provider relationships; (e) parents needed to remain optimistic; and (f) children's outcomes could differ from providers' early acute care prognostications. Conclusion: Parents blatantly and tacitly revealed their beliefs that providers play an important role in shaping parent reception of and synthesis of prognostic information, which constructs the family's ability to cope and participate in shared decision-making. Negative medical certainty created a fearful or threatening environment that kept parents from being fully informed.Brain Injury 10/2013; 27(13-14). DOI:10.3109/02699052.2013.831122 · 1.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Data on intraoperative secondary insults in pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) are limited. We examined intraoperative secondary insults during extracranial surgery in children with moderate-severe TBI and polytrauma and their association with postoperative head computed tomography (CT) scans, intracranial pressure (ICP), and therapeutic intensity level (TIL) scores 24 h after surgery. After IRB approval, we reviewed the records of children <18 years with a Glasgow Coma Scale score <13 who underwent extracranial surgery within 72 h of TBI. Definitions of secondary insults were as follows: systemic hypotension (SBP <70 + 2 × age or 90 mmHg), cerebral hypotension (cerebral perfusion pressure <40 mmHg), intracranial hypertension (ICP >20 mmHg), hypoxia (oxygen saturation <90 %), hypercarbia (end-tidal CO2 >45 mmHg), hypocarbia (end-tidal CO2 <30 mmHg without hypotension and in the absence of intracranial hypertension), hyperglycemia (blood glucose >200 mg/dL), hyperthermia (temperature >38 °C), and hypothermia (temperature <35 °C). Data from 50 surgeries in 42 patients (median age 15.5 years, 25 males) revealed systemic hypotension during 78 %, hypocarbia during 46 %, and hypercarbia during 25 % surgeries. Intracranial hypertension occurred in 64 % and cerebral hypotension in 18 % surgeries with ICP monitoring (11/50). Hyperglycemia occurred during 17 % of the 29 surgeries with glucose monitoring. Cerebral hypotension and hypoxia were associated with postoperative intracranial hypertension (p = 0.02 and 0.03, respectively). We did not observe an association between intraoperative secondary insults and postoperative worsening of head CT scan or TIL score. Intraoperative secondary insults were common during extracranial surgery in pediatric TBI. Intraoperative cerebral hypotension and hypoxia were associated with postoperative intracranial hypertension. Strategies to prevent secondary insults during extracranial surgery in TBI are needed.Child s Nervous System 01/2014; 30(7). DOI:10.1007/s00381-014-2353-3 · 1.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: School reintegration following children's traumatic brain injury (TBI) is still poorly understood from families' perspectives. We aimed to understand how both unique and common experiences during children's school reintegration were explained by parents to influence the family. Methods: Data came from an investigation using descriptive phenomenology (2005-2007) to understand parents' experiences in the first five years following children's moderate to severe TBI. Parents (N = 42 from 37 families in the United States) participated in two 90-min interviews (first M = 15 months; second M = 27 months). Two investigators independently coded parents' discussions of school reintegration using content analysis to understand the unique and common factors that parents perceived affected the family. Results: Parents' school negotiation themes included the following: (1) legal versus moral basis for helping the child; (2) inappropriate state and local services that did not consider needs specific to TBI; and (3) involvement in planning, implementing and evaluating the child's education plan. Parents perceived that coordinated and collaboration leadership with school personnel lessened families' workload. Families who home-schooled had unique challenges. Conclusions: School reintegration can add to family workload by changing roles and relationships and by adding to parents' perceived stress in managing of the child's condition. Implications for Rehabilitation Moderate to severe traumatic brain injury is assumed to be the primary cause of children's morbidities post-injury. Despite laws in the United States meant to facilitate children's school reintegration needs, parents often perceived that policies and practices differed from the intentions of laws and added to the family workload and stress. The school environment of the child (physical, cultural or psychological setting) plays an important long-term role in shaping family roles, relationships and management of the child's condition.Disability and Rehabilitation 06/2014; 37(6):1-11. DOI:10.3109/09638288.2014.933896 · 1.99 Impact Factor