Sjögren´s syndrome in present.
ABSTRACT Sjögren´s syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by a reduced function of exocrine glands, mainly salivary and lacrimal glands based on chronic plasmocellular infiltration. Syndrome includes affection of glands in gastrointestinal system, respiratory apparatus, skin, and vaginal mucosa. I tis described separately as a primary Sjögren´s syndrome or together with other inflammatory rheumatic diseases as a secondary Sjögren´s syndrome. Advanced diagnostic is based mainly on serologic examinations. Treatment of patients reflects the form of Sjögren´s syndrome. Despite recent knowledge the treatment is rather symptomatic than causal (Ref. 12).
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ABSTRACT: We investigated the clinical and laboratory characteristics of Sjögren's syndrome-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SS/SLE), focusing on the possible risk factors of SS that allow development to SLE. The experimental group included 55 SS/SLE patients, and the control group included 55 primary SS (pSS) patients recruited from our department between 1997 and 2012. Compared with the control group, SS/SLE patients showed a younger age of onset of SS (31 ± 12 vs. 39 ± 11 years, P = 0.001). In clinical characteristics, SS/SLE patients showed a lower frequency of xerostomia (78.2% vs. 96.4%, P = 0.016) and interstitial lung disease (27.3% vs. 54.5%, P = 0.004), and a higher frequency of arthritis (74.5% vs. 40.0%, P = 0.000). In laboratory characteristics, SS/SLE patients showed a higher frequency of leukopenia (56.4% vs. 29.1%, P = 0.004), proteinuria (27.3% vs. 7.3%, P = 0.009), and low complement levels (CH50 : 30.9% vs. 1.8%; C3 : 54.5% vs. 12.7%; C4: 41.8% vs. 7.3%, P = 0.000). The multivariate analysis using logistic regression revealed that age of onset, low levels of C3 and C4 were the independent risk factors of SS/SLE (age of onset: RR = 0.919, P = 0.000; low C3 levels: RR = 9.659, P = 0.000; low C4 levels: RR = 6.035, P = 0.007). The SS/SLE patients had an earlier age of onset, higher incidences of arthritis, leucopenia, proteinuria and low complement levels, and lower incidences of xerostomia and interstitial lung disease compared with pSS patients. These results suggest that we should be vigilant with the pSS patients who have all these mentioned clinical and laboratory characteristics, and are more likely to develop SS/SLE.International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases 04/2013; 16(2):173-7. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Dry mouth is usually caused by a reduced salivary flow or by changes in the biochemical composition of saliva. Objective: The aim of this paper is a review of the update literature of dry mouth. Methods: We search in pubmed in the past 10 years using the words «dry mouth», «causes», «symptoms», «treatment» and «dentistry». A large number of papers have been identified. Papers not relevant to the issue were removed reducing the entries to 56 only. Results: There are no clearly established protocols for the treatment of dry mouth in the literature. Most of identified papers were systematic reviews, non-systematic reviews, and observational studies. The most studied patients were Sjögren's syndrome and the irradiated patients. Treatments are focused on the etiology, prevention, symptomatic, local salivary stimulation and systemic treatments. Conclusion: It can be concluded that there is no clear evidence for the causes and treatment of dry mouth, therefore the majority of the general dental practitioners refer most of the cases to appropriate specialist. Treatment must be individualized, salivary substitutes and mechanical stimulation techniques can be applied.African health sciences. 09/2014; 14(3).