PAM4 enzyme immunoassay alone and in combination with CA 19-9 for the detection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The monoclonal antibody PAM4 has high specificity for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), as well as its precursor lesions, but has not been found to be reactive with normal and benign pancreatic tissues. The objective of the current study was to evaluate a PAM4-based serum enzyme immunoassay alone and in combination with the carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 assay for the detection of PDAC, with particular attention to early stage disease. METHODS: Sera from patients with confirmed PDAC (N = 298), other cancers (N = 99), benign disease of the pancreas (N = 120), and healthy adults (N = 79) were evaluated by a specific enzyme immunoassay for the concentration of PAM4 and CA 19-9 antigen levels by blinded analyses. All tests for statistical significance were 2-sided. RESULTS: The overall sensitivity for PAM4 detection of PDAC was 76%, with 64% of patients with stage I disease also identified. The detection rate was considerably higher (85%) for patients with advanced disease. The assay demonstrated high specificity compared with benign pancreatic disease (85%), with a positive likelihood ratio of 4.93. CA 19-9 provided an overall sensitivity of 77%, and was positive in 58% of patients with stage I disease; however, the specificity was significantly lower for CA 19-9 (68%), with a positive likelihood ratio of 2.85 (P = .026 compared with PAM4). It is important to note that a combined PAM4 and CA 19-9 biomarker serum assay demonstrated an improved sensitivity (84%) for the overall detection of PDAC without a significant loss of specificity (82%) compared with either arm alone. CONCLUSIONS: The PAM4 enzyme immunoassay identified approximately two-thirds of patients with stage I PDAC with high discriminatory power with respect to benign, nonneoplastic pancreatic disease. These results provide a rationale for testing patient groups considered to be at high risk for PDAC with a combined PAM4 and CA 19-9 biomarker serum assay for the detection of early stage PDAC. Cancer 2012. © 2012 American Cancer Society.
SourceAvailable from: Qing Zhu[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: PAM4, a new monoclonal antibody (MAb) known as clivatuzumab, is highly reactive with pancreatic cancer and precursor lesions. It is absent from the normal tissues and has limited reactivity with nonpancreatic cancer. The detailed characteristic of the PAM4 epitope is unknown but recent studies have shown that it is dependent on MUC1 glycosylation status. The limited PAM4 expression pattern makes it an attractive candidate for management of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. In addition, PAM4 is a serum biomarker for diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. Several different radiolabeled immunodiagnostic and immunotherapeutic agents of PAM4 have been developed and some are being evaluated in preclinical and/or clinical studies. The review will focus on PAM4 and its potential utility for the diagnosis, radioimmunodetection, and radioimmunotherapy of pancreatic cancer.Journal of Immunology Research 04/2014; 2014:268479. DOI:10.1155/2014/268479 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is an aggressive malignancy with a 5-year survival rate of approximately 5%.The lack of established strategies for early detection contributes to this poor prognosis. Although several novel candidate biomarkers have been proposed for earlier diagnosis, none have been adopted into routine clinical use. In this review, the authors examine the challenges associated with finding new pancreatic cancer diagnostic biomarkers and explore why translation of biomarker research for patient benefit has thus far failed. The authors also review recent progress and highlight advances in the understanding of the biology of pancreatic cancer that may lead to improvements in biomarker detection and implementation.Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 11/2014; 9(3):1-11. DOI:10.1586/17474124.2015.965145 · 2.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The diagnosis of pancreatic cystic neoplasms has become more accurate recently. In some cases, however, doubt remains regarding the lesion's malignant potential. CA 19-9 has long been identified as a reliable biomarker in differentiating pancreatic benign and malignant lesions, especially in non-jaundiced patients. We report a case of a young female who presented with a mucinous lesion in the tail of the pancreas and a serum CA 19-9 over 1,000,000 U/mL. She was taken to surgery and had a distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy. Pathology reports showed only a mucinous cystadenoma. After 1 year of follow-up, her serum CA 19-9 was normal. Following that, the work-up in these lesions, the role of the biomarker in pancreatic adenocarcinoma and in the differentiation between benign and malignant lesions is discussed.World Journal of Surgical Oncology 12/2015; 13(1):476. DOI:10.1186/s12957-015-0476-y · 1.20 Impact Factor