A Role for cGMP in Inducible Nitric-oxide Synthase (iNOS)-induced Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) α-converting Enzyme (TACE/ADAM17) Activation, Translocation, and TNF Receptor 1 (TNFR1) Shedding in Hepatocytes.
ABSTRACT We and others have previously shown that the inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) are hepatoprotective in a number of circumstances, including endotoxemia. In vitro, hepatocytes are protected from tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α-induced apoptosis via cGMP-dependent and cGMP-independent mechanisms. We have shown that the cGMP-dependent protective mechanisms involve the inhibition of death-inducing signaling complex formation. We show here that LPS-induced iNOS expression leads to rapid TNF receptor shedding from the surface of hepatocytes via NO/cGMP/protein kinase G-dependent activation and surface translocation of TNFα-converting enzyme (TACE/ADAM17). The activation of TACE is associated with the up-regulation of iRhom2 as well as the interaction and phosphorylation of TACE and iRhom2, which are also NO/cGMP/protein kinase G-dependent. These findings suggest that one mechanism of iNOS/NO-mediated protection of hepatocytes involves the rapid shedding of TNF receptor 1 to limit TNFα signaling.