Article

Valproic Acid Decreases Urothelial Cancer Cell Proliferation and Induces Thrombospondin-1 Expression.

BMC Urology (Impact Factor: 1.94). 08/2012; 12(1):21. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2490-12-21
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Background
Prevention of bladder cancer recurrence is a central challenge in the management of this highly prevalent disease. The histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid (sodium valproate) has anti-angiogenic properties and has been shown to decrease bladder cancer growth in model systems. We have previously shown reduced expression of thrombospondin-1 in a mouse model and in human bladder cancer relative to normal urothelium. We speculated that inhibition of angiogenesis by valproate might be mediated by this anti-angiogenic protein.

Methods
Bladder cancer cell lines UMUC3 and T24 were treated with valproate or another histone deacetylase inhibitor, vorinostat, in culture for a period of three days. Proliferation was assessed by alamar blue reduction. Gene expression was evaluated by reverse transcription of RNA and quantitative PCR.

Results
Proliferation assays showed treatment with valproate or vorinostat decreased proliferation in both cell lines. Histone deacetylase inhibition also increased relative expression of thrombospondin-1 up to 8 fold at 5 mM valproate.

Conclusions
Histone deacetylase inhibitors warrant further study for the prevention or treatment of bladder cancer.

0 Followers
 · 
134 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Valproic acid (VPA), used for the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder, regulates several signaling pathways in brain cells. The up-regulated gene 4 (URG4/URGCP) is a novel gene located on 7p13. URG4/URGCP stimulates cyclin D1 (CCND1) mRNA expression, and URG4/URGCP silencing diminishes CCND1 mRNA expression in HepG2 cells. This study was performed to investigate the anti-cancer mechanism of action of VPA by analyzing the expression of novel gene URG4/URGCP, CCND1, p21, p53, p65 (RelA), Bax, and Bcl-2 in SHSY5Y neuroblastoma (NB) cancer cells. Cytotoxic effects of VPA in SHSY5Y were noticed in time and dose dependent manner with the IC50 doses within the range of 0.5-10 mM. IC50 doses in the SHSY5Y were detected as 7.5 mM. Expression profiles were determined by semi quantitative RT-PCR and URG4/URGCP protein change by western blot analysis. Our results suggest that VPA induces cell cycle arrest in SHSY5Y due to the decrease in URG4/URGCP, CCND1 gene expression and the increase in p65. To conclude, VPA may be a prospective agent for the treatment of NB as a single agent or in combination with other drugs. Thus, more studies should be designed to find a safe dose with the best effects of VPA.
    Molecular Biology Reports 03/2014; DOI:10.1007/s11033-014-3330-3 · 1.96 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this review, we summarize the knowledge pertaining to the role of epigenetics in the regulation of angiogenesis. In particular, we show that lysine acetylation and cytosine methylation are important transcriptional regulators of angiogenic genes in endothelial cells. Lysine acetylation and cytosine methylation inhibitors idiosyncratically tune the transcriptome and affect expression of key modulators of angiogenesis such as VEGF and eNOS. Transcriptomic profiling also reveals a series of novel genes that are concomitantly affected by epigenetic modulators. The reversibility and overall tolerability of currently available epigenetic inhibitors opens up the prospect of therapeutic intervention in pathologies where angiogenesis is exacerbated. This type of multitargeted strategy has the major advantage of overcoming the compensatory feedback mechanisms that characterize single anti-angiogenic factors.
    Vascular Pharmacology 01/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.vph.2014.01.003 · 4.62 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Histone deacetylase is strongly associated with epigenetic regulation and carcinogenesis, and its inhibitors can induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of the cancer cells. In this study we aimed to examine the antiproliferative effects a combination of the valproate with nicotinamide in MIAPaca2 cell line. We revealed that valproate acted in a synergistic/additive with nicotinamide to inhibit the proliferation and induction of apoptosis in MIAPaca2 cancer cell line. MIAPaca2 was treated with various concentrations of valproate. The MTT assay and colony formation in soft agar indicated that valproate at 0.5 mM, when used alone weakly, suppressed proliferation of cells (37 ± 3.02 %) whereas the combination treatment of valproate + nicotinamide significantly suppressed cell proliferation (58 ± 3.5 %). The effect of nicotinamide at 25 mM on cell proliferation and cell colonization induced 50 % apoptosis of MIAPaca2 cells. To identify the anti-proliferation and apoptotic effects of valproate and nicotinamide we performed flow cytometric and microscopic analyses. The results indicated significant apoptosis induction and nuclear morphological alterations greater than when valproate was used alone. Furthermore, western blot analyses was performed to study the role of acetyl-histone H3 levels, and quantitative RNA expression analyses were performed on expression of thrombospondin (TSP) and maspin genes in MIAPaca2. We found that the combination treatment of valproate + nicotinamide enhanced the expression of maspin and TSP genes and the biological response of the cell line was correlated with the increase of histone H3 acetylation after nicotinamide and valproate application. Together our findings indicate that valproate which act as inhibitor of cell proliferation and inducer of apoptosis in human cancer MIAPaca2 cells when used in combination with nicotinamide makes it a potentially good candidate for new anticancer drug development.
    Molecular Biology Reports 03/2014; 41(6). DOI:10.1007/s11033-014-3246-y · 1.96 Impact Factor

Full-text (3 Sources)

Download
29 Downloads
Available from
Jun 1, 2014