Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) is an uncommon disorder characterized by brief episodes of involuntary dystonia or choreoathetosis triggered by sudden voluntary movement.(1) Recently, several groups identified mutations in patients with PKD in the proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) gene.(2-7) We report a missense c.913G>A (p.Gly305Arg) change in PRRT2 in 4 siblings with PKD, 2 with infrequent symptoms. The association of a milder phenotype and reduced penetrance with this missense mutation suggests partial loss of function.
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"The gene responsible for PNKD was identified as the MR-1 gene in 2004, but it is now referred to as PNKD (Raskind et al., 1998; Lee et al., 2004; Rainier et al., 2004). To date three mutations in this gene have been reported; p.A7V, p.A9V and p.A33P, the first two of which have been found in multiple unrelated patients (Lee et al., 2004; Friedman et al., 2009; Ghezzi et al., 2009; Shen et al., 2011; Pons et al., 2012; Erro et al., 2014). Recent work from Shen et al., (2015) has shown that PNKD interacts with the synaptic active zone proteins RAB-interacting molecule (RIM)1 and RIM2, and modulates neurotransmitter release. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Paroxysmal dyskinesia can be subdivided into three clinical syndromes: paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia or choreoathetosis, paroxysmal exercise-induced dyskinesia, and paroxysmal non-kinesigenic dyskinesia. Each subtype is associated with the known causative genes PRRT2, SLC2A1 and PNKD, respectively. Although separate screening studies have been carried out on each of the paroxysmal dyskinesia genes, to date there has been no large study across all genes in these disorders and little is known about the pathogenic mechanisms. We analysed all three genes (the whole coding regions of SLC2A1 and PRRT2 and exons one and two of PNKD) in a series of 145 families with paroxysmal dyskinesias as well as in a series of 53 patients with familial episodic ataxia and hemiplegic migraine to investigate the mutation frequency and type and the genetic and phenotypic spectrum. We examined the mRNA expression in brain regions to investigate how selective vulnerability could help explain the phenotypes and analysed the effect of mutations on patient-derived mRNA. Mutations in the PRRT2, SLC2A1 and PNKD genes were identified in 72 families in the entire study. In patients with paroxysmal movement disorders 68 families had mutations (47%) out of 145 patients. PRRT2 mutations were identified in 35% of patients, SLC2A1 mutations in 10%, PNKD in 2%. Two PRRT2 mutations were in familial hemiplegic migraine or episodic ataxia, one SLC2A1 family had episodic ataxia and one PNKD family had familial hemiplegic migraine alone. Several previously unreported mutations were identified. The phenotypes associated with PRRT2 mutations included a high frequency of migraine and hemiplegic migraine. SLC2A1 mutations were associated with variable phenotypes including paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia, paroxysmal non-kinesigenic dyskinesia, episodic ataxia and myotonia and we identified a novel PNKD gene deletion in familial hemiplegic migraine. We found that some PRRT2 loss-of-function mutations cause nonsense mediated decay, except when in the last exon, whereas missense mutations do not affect mRNA. In the PNKD family with a novel deletion, mRNA was truncated losing the C-terminus of PNKD-L and still likely loss-of-function, leading to a reduction of the inhibition of exocytosis, and similar to PRRT2, an increase in vesicle release. This study highlights the frequency, novel mutations and clinical and molecular spectrum of PRRT2, SLC2A1 and PNKD mutations as well as the phenotype–genotype overlap among these paroxysmal movement disorders. The investigation of paroxysmal movement disorders should always include the analysis of all three genes, but around half of our paroxysmal series remain genetically undefined implying that additional genes are yet to be identified.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in PRRT2 genes have been identified as a major cause of benign infantile epilepsy and/or paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia. We explored mutations in PRRT2 in Japanese patients with BIE as well as its related conditions including convulsion with mild gastroenteritis and benign early infantile epilepsy. We explored PRRT2 mutations in Japanese children who had had unprovoked infantile seizures or convulsion with mild gastroenteritis. The probands included 16 children with benign infantile epilepsy, 6 children with convulsions with mild gastroenteritis, and 2 siblings with benign early infantile epilepsy. In addition, we recruited samples from family members when PRRT2 mutation was identified in the proband. Statistical analyses were performed to identify differences in probands with benign infantile epilepsy according to the presence or absence of PRRT2 mutation. Among a total of 24 probands, PRRT2 mutations was identified only in 6 probands with benign infantile epilepsy. A common insertion mutation, c.649_650insC, was found in 5 families and a novel missense mutation, c.981C>G (I327M), in one. The family history of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia was more common in probands with PRRT2 mutations than in those without mutations. Our study revealed that PRRT2 mutations are common in Japanese patients with benign infantile epilepsy, especially in patients with a family history of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia.
Brain & development 11/2012; 35(7). DOI:10.1016/j.braindev.2012.09.015 · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the gene PRRT2 encoding proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 have recently been identified as the cause of three clinical entities: benign familial infantile epilepsy (BFIE), infantile convulsions with choreoathetosis (ICCA) syndrome, and paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD). Patients with ICCA have both BFIE and PKD and families with ICCA may contain individuals who exhibit all three phenotypes. These three phenotypes were all mapped by linkage analyses to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 16, and were hypothesised to have the same genetic basis due to the co-occurrence of the disorders in some families. Despite considerable effort, the gene or genes for BFIE, ICCA, and PKD were not identified for many years after the linkage region was identified. Mutations in the gene PRRT2 were identified in several Chinese families with PKD, suggesting that the gene may also be responsible for ICCA and BFIE in families linked to the chromosome 16 locus. This was demonstrated to be the case, with the majority of families with ICCA and BFIE found to have PRRT2 mutations. The vast majority of these mutations are truncating and are predicted to lead to haploinsufficiency. PRRT2 is a largely uncharacterised protein. It is expressed in the brain and has been demonstrated to interact with SNAP-25, a component of the molecular machinery involved in the release of neurotransmitters at the presynaptic membrane. Therefore, the PRRT2 protein may play a role in this process. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the remarkable pleiotropy associated with PRRT2 mutations have still to be determined.
Journal of Medical Genetics 01/2013; 50(3). DOI:10.1136/jmedgenet-2012-101406 · 6.34 Impact Factor