Effect of transfusion guidelines on postoperative transfusion in children undergoing craniofacial reconstruction surgery
From the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine (PAS, JEF, TJK, EYP, JJMC) and Department of Surgery (JAT, SPB), The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
(Impact Factor: 2.34).
08/2012; 13(6). DOI: 10.1097/PCC.0b013e31825b561b
OBJECTIVE:: To assess the effect of implementation of population-specific postoperative management guidelines on postoperative transfusion in children undergoing cranial vault reconstruction surgery. DESIGN:: Retrospective observational study with historical controls. SETTING:: Single, large, academic tertiary pediatric hospital. PATIENTS:: Children aged 6 months to 17 yrs undergoing fronto-orbital advancement or posterior cranial vault reconstruction surgery enrolled in our craniofacial surgery perioperative registry from April 14, 2008 to September 7, 2011. INTERVENTION:: Postoperative management guidelines for children undergoing cranial vault reconstruction surgery were implemented on December 1, 2009. These management guidelines included projected surgical drain output as well as specific transfusion thresholds for packed red blood cells and hemostatic blood products. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:: We queried our craniofacial surgery perioperative registry for children who underwent cranial vault reconstruction to assess transfusion practices before and after the implementation of the postoperative guidelines. Subjects were divided into a preguideline cohort and a postguideline cohort. Perioperative demographic data and postoperative transfusion data were compared between the two groups. The registry query returned data on 59 procedures in the preguideline cohort and 58 procedures in the postguideline cohort. The immediate postoperative hematocrit and the postoperative blood loss through surgical drains were not statistically different in the two groups. The prevalence of postoperative transfusion of any blood product was significantly less in the postguideline cohort (17% vs. 42%, p = .003). Most of the transfusion reduction was achieved through a reduction in fresh frozen plasma transfusion (5% vs. 25%, p = .002). CONCLUSIONS:: In this observational study, the implementation of postoperative management guidelines was associated with a 60% reduction in postoperative transfusion. The use of transfusion thresholds is a simple, inexpensive, and effective strategy for transfusion reduction and should be a first-line approach to perioperative transfusion reduction in this population.
Available from: John E Fiadjoe
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ABSTRACT: Anesthetic management of infants undergoing craniofacial surgery can be challenging. Primary concerns for the anesthesiologist include blood loss and its management. The evolution of procedures to treat craniosynostosis has resulted in improvements in perioperative morbidity, including decreased blood loss and transfusion, shorter operations, and shorter hospital stays. An understanding of the procedures performed to treat craniosynostosis is necessary to provide optimal anesthetic management. Descriptions of current surgical techniques and approaches to anesthetic care are presented in this review.
Anesthesiology Clinics 03/2014; 32(1):215-235. DOI:10.1016/j.anclin.2013.10.007
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Craniofacial reconstructive surgery for craniosynostosis is associated with large blood loss and intraoperative transfusion. This blood loss may continue through the initial postoperative period, potentially resulting in transfusion postoperatively. The purpose of this study is to determine if there is an association between any modifiable intraoperative factors and postoperative blood transfusion in this patient population.MethodsA cohort of 55 pediatric patients who underwent primary craniofacial reconstruction at Vanderbilt Children's Hospital from January 1, 2013 to April 31, 2014 was analyzed. The authors analyzed 20 different demographic and perioperative variables for statistical associations with postoperative PRBC transfusion using multiple logistic regression with optimal models being selected by Bayesian model averaging.ResultsThe optimal regression model only included initial PACU Hct as a predictor and showed a significant association between this variable and postoperative PRBC transfusion (odds ratio 0.69, 95% CI 0.55–0.87, P = 0.0016). Based on the average decrease in postoperative hematocrit (Hct) and the postoperative transfusion trigger, an initial PACU Hct threshold of 30 was calculated. In our patient sample, an initial PACU Hct above 30 was associated with a 50% decrease in the absolute risk of receiving a PRBC transfusion postoperatively.Conclusions
Based on this retrospective analysis, it may be justifiable to transfuse residual volume from previously exposed intraoperative PRBCs to a Hct above 30 to decrease the likelihood of subsequent blood transfusions from different donors in the postoperative period.
Pediatric Anesthesia 12/2014; 25(3). DOI:10.1111/pan.12600 · 1.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Within the diagnosis "craniosynostosis," there is a subset of patients who present with isolated, nonsyndromic, single-suture involvement. This study evaluates perioperative complications in this specific subset of patients over 4 decades at a single institution. To do so, we performed a retrospective review on consecutive patients undergoing correction of single-suture synostosis from May 1977 to January 2013 at a tertiary pediatric craniofacial center. Demographic information, operative details, and perioperative course were collected. Complications were categorized as either major or minor. A χ test and Fisher exact test were used to compare all categorical variables. Continuous variables were analyzed using Wilcoxon rank-sum and Kruskal-Wallis tests.Seven hundred forty-six patients underwent surgical correction of nonsyndromic craniosynostosis. Of these, there were 307 (41.2%) sagittal, 201 (26.9%) metopic, and 238 (31.9%) unicoronal. Thirty-four patients had complications (4.6%). Eight were considered major (1.1%), including one postoperative mortality in a patient with hypoplastic left-sided heart syndrome. Minor complications occurred in 26 patients (3.5%) and included subgaleal hematoma (n = 3), seroma (n = 4), and superficial wound infection (n = 5). Metopic and sagittal suture involvement was significantly associated with a higher complication rate (P = 0.04). A child with isolated single suture synostosis and any comorbidity had a significantly greater risk of any complication (P < 0.001; odds ratio, 3.8) and specifically an increased risk of major complication (P = 0.031; odds ratio, 6.0). Subclassification of patients by time period yielded no statistically significant changes in perioperative morbidity. To conclude, these data allow us to counsel families more accurately with regard to morbidity and mortality and may potentially serve as a benchmark for future quality improvement work.
Journal of Craniofacial Surgery 12/2014; 26(1). DOI:10.1097/SCS.0000000000001316 · 0.68 Impact Factor
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