Interference with the PTEN-MAST2 interaction by a viral protein leads to cellular relocalization of PTEN.
ABSTRACT PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) and MAST2 (microtubule-associated serine and threonine kinase 2) interact with each other through the PDZ domain of MAST2 (MAST2-PDZ) and the carboxyl-terminal (C-terminal) PDZ domain-binding site (PDZ-BS) of PTEN. These two proteins function as negative regulators of cell survival pathways, and silencing of either one promotes neuronal survival. In human neuroblastoma cells infected with rabies virus (RABV), the C-terminal PDZ domain of the viral glycoprotein (G protein) can target MAST2-PDZ, and RABV infection triggers neuronal survival in a PDZ-BS-dependent fashion. These findings suggest that the PTEN-MAST2 complex inhibits neuronal survival and that viral G protein disrupts this complex through competition with PTEN for binding to MAST2-PDZ. We showed that the C-terminal sequences of PTEN and the viral G protein bound to MAST2-PDZ with similar affinities. Nuclear magnetic resonance structures of these complexes exhibited similar large interaction surfaces, providing a structural basis for their binding specificities. Additionally, the viral G protein promoted the nuclear exclusion of PTEN in infected neuroblastoma cells in a PDZ-BS-dependent manner without altering total PTEN abundance. These findings suggest that formation of the PTEN-MAST2 complex is specifically affected by the viral G protein and emphasize how disruption of a critical protein-protein interaction regulates intracellular PTEN trafficking. In turn, the data show how the viral protein might be used to decipher the underlying molecular mechanisms and to clarify how the subcellular localization of PTEN regulates neuronal survival.
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ABSTRACT: Background: Columnaris causes severe mortalities among many different wild and cultured freshwater fish species, but understanding of host resistance is lacking. Catfish, the primary aquaculture species in the United States, serves as a great model for the analysis of host resistance against columnaris disease. Channel catfish in general is highly resistant to the disease while blue catfish is highly susceptible. F2 generation of hybrids can be produced where phenotypes and genotypes are segregating, providing a useful system for QTL analysis. To identify genes associated with columnaris resistance, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using the catfish 250 K SNP array with 340 backcross progenies derived from crossing female channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) with male F1 hybrid catfish (female channel catfish I. punctatus × male blue catfish I. furcatus). Results: A genomic region on linkage group 7 was found to be significantly associated with columnaris resistance. Within this region, five have known functions in immunity, including pik3r3b, cyld-like, adcyap1r1, adcyap1r1-like, and mast2. In addition, 3 additional suggestively associated QTL regions were identified on linkage groups 7, 12, and 14. The resistant genotypes on the QTLs of linkage groups 7 and 12 were found to be homozygous with both alleles being derived from channel catfish. The paralogs of the candidate genes in the suggestively associated QTL of linkage group 12 were found on the QTLs of linkage group 7. Many candidate genes on the four associated regions are involved in PI3K pathway that is known to be required by many bacteria for efficient entry into the host. Conclusion: The GWAS revealed four QTLs associated with columnaris resistance in catfish. Strikingly, the candidate genes may be arranged as functional hubs; the candidate genes within the associated QTLs on linkage groups 7 and 12 are not only co-localized, but also functionally related, with many of them being involved in the PI3K signal transduction pathway, suggesting its importance for columnaris resistance.BMC Genomics 02/2015; 16(1):196. DOI:10.1186/s12864-015-1409-4 · 4.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PTEN is the most important negative regulator of the PI3K signaling pathway. In addition to its canonical, PI3K inhibition-dependent functions, PTEN can also function as a tumor suppressor in a PI3K-independent manner. Indeed, the PTEN network regulates a broad spectrum of biological functions, modulating the flow of information from membrane-bound growth factor receptors to nuclear transcription factors, occurring in concert with other tumor suppressors and oncogenic signaling pathways. PTEN acts through its lipid and protein phosphatase activity and other non-enzymatic mechanisms. Studies conducted over the past 10 years have expanded our understanding of the biological role of PTEN, showing that in addition to its ability to regulate proliferation and cell survival, it also plays an intriguing role in regulating genomic stability, cell migration, stem cell self-renewal, and tumor microenvironment. Changes in PTEN protein levels, location, and enzymatic activity through various molecular mechanisms can generate a continuum of functional PTEN levels in inherited syndromes, sporadic cancers, and other diseases. PTEN activity can indeed, be modulated by mutations, epigenetic silencing, transcriptional repression, aberrant protein localization, and post-translational modifications. This review will discuss our current understanding of the biological role of PTEN, how PTEN expression and activity are regulated, and the consequences of PTEN dysregulation in human malignant tumors.Frontiers in Oncology 02/2015; 5:24. DOI:10.3389/fonc.2015.00024
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ABSTRACT: PDZ (PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1) domains play a major role in neuronal homeostasis in which they act as scaffold domains regulating cellular trafficking, self-association and catalytic activity of essential proteins such as kinases and phosphatases. Because of their central role in cell signaling, cellular PDZ-containing proteins are preferential targets of viruses to hijack cellular function to their advantage. Here, we describe how the viral G protein of the rabies virus specifically targets the PDZ domain of neuronal enzymes during viral infection. By disrupting the complexes formed by cellular enzymes and their ligands, the virus triggers drastic effect on cell signaling and commitment of the cell to either survival (virulent strains) or death (vaccinal strain). We provide structural and biological evidences that the viral proteins act as competitors endowed with specificity and affinity in an essential cellular process by mimicking PDZ binding motif of cellular partners. Disruption of critical endogenous protein-protein interactions by viral protein drastically alters intracellular protein trafficking and catalytic activity of cellular proteins that control cell homeostasis. This work opens up many perspectives to mimic viral sequences and developing innovative therapies to manipulate cellular homeostasis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2015.02.007 · 3.38 Impact Factor