Stroke and Bleeding in Atrial Fibrillation with Chronic Kidney Disease
ABSTRACT Both atrial fibrillation and chronic kidney disease increase the risk of stroke and systemic thromboembolism. However, these risks, and the effects of antithrombotic treatment, have not been thoroughly investigated in patients with both conditions.
Using Danish national registries, we identified all patients discharged from the hospital with a diagnosis of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation between 1997 and 2008. The risk of stroke or systemic thromboembolism and bleeding associated with non-end-stage chronic kidney disease and with end-stage chronic kidney disease (i.e., disease requiring renal-replacement therapy) was estimated with the use of time-dependent Cox regression analyses. In addition, the effects of treatment with warfarin, aspirin, or both in patients with chronic kidney disease were compared with the effects in patients with no renal disease.
Of 132,372 patients included in the analysis, 3587 (2.7%) had non-end-stage chronic kidney disease and 901 (0.7%) required renal-replacement therapy at the time of inclusion. As compared with patients who did not have renal disease, patients with non-end-stage chronic kidney disease had an increased risk of stroke or systemic thromboembolism (hazard ratio, 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38 to 1.59; P<0.001), as did those requiring renal-replacement therapy (hazard ratio, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.57 to 2.14; P<0.001); this risk was significantly decreased for both groups of patients with warfarin but not with aspirin. The risk of bleeding was also increased among patients who had non-end-stage chronic kidney disease or required renal-replacement therapy and was further increased with warfarin, aspirin, or both.
Chronic kidney disease was associated with an increased risk of stroke or systemic thromboembolism and bleeding among patients with atrial fibrillation. Warfarin treatment was associated with a decreased risk of stroke or systemic thromboembolism among patients with chronic kidney disease, whereas warfarin and aspirin were associated with an increased risk of bleeding. (Funded by the Lundbeck Foundation.).
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ABSTRACT: The R2CHADS2 is a new prediction rule for stroke risk in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients wherein R stands for renal risk. However, it was created from a cohort that excluded patients with advanced renal failure (defined as glomerular filtration rate of <30 mL/min). Our study extends the use of R2CHADS2 to patients with advanced renal failure and aims to compare its predictive power against the currently used CHADS and CHA2DS2VaSc. This retrospective cohort study analyzed the 1-year risk for stroke of the 524 patients with AF at Metropolitan Hospital Center. AUC and C statistics were calculated using three groups: (i) the entire cohort including patients with advanced renal failure, (ii) a cohort excluding patients with advanced renal failure and (iii) all patients with GFR < 30 mL/min only. R2CHADS2, as a predictor for stroke risk, consistently performs better than CHADS2 and CHA2DS2VsC in groups 1 and 2. The C-statistic was highest in R2CHADS compared with CHADS or CHADSVASC in group 1 (0.718 versus 0.605 versus 0.602) and in group 2 (0.724 versus 0.584 versus 0.579). However, there was no statistically significant difference in group 3 (0.631 versus 0.629 versus 0.623). Our study supports the utility of R2CHADS2 as a clinical prediction rule for stroke risk in patients with advanced renal failure.04/2015; 8(2). DOI:10.1093/ckj/sfv006
Research: Atrial Fibrillation and anticoagulation[Show description] [Hide description]
DESCRIPTION: Review on Atrial Fibrillation and Anticoagulation
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ABSTRACT: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most commonly observed rhythm disorder in clinical practice. It is associated with a high risk of thromboembolic stroke and increased cardiovascular mortality. Vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), the only oral anticoagulants used for thromboembolic prophylaxis in AF patients over the past 60 years, have been effective in reducing thromboembolic stroke, compared with placebo and aspirin, in this group of patients. However, VKAs have a very narrow therapeutic window, so regular monitoring of the therapeutic effect is obligatory for their use. The need for regular assessment of blood anticoagulation often causes dissatisfaction and reduces patients' quality of life. Non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOACs), such as dabigatran, a direct thrombin inhibitor, and 3 factor Xa inhibitors, namely rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban, have been developed in recent years and have increased the armamentarium available to the physician for thromboprophylaxis in non-valvular AF (NVAF) patients. This review describes the characteristics of NOACs, analyzing aspects related to their use in the thromboprophylaxis of NVAF patients. It also discusses how to optimize NOAC therapy in specific clinical conditions, such as renal or liver impairment, and concomitant assumption of drugs potentially interfering with NOACs action. Finally, it focuses on NOAC-related bleeding management in the setting of non-cardiac surgery or radiofrequency catheter ablation of NVAF.Circulation Journal 04/2015; 79(5):914-923. DOI:10.1253/circj.CJ-15-0319 · 3.69 Impact Factor