Macrophages promote fibroblast growth factor receptor-driven tumor cell migration and invasion in a CXCR2-dependent manner.
ABSTRACT Infiltration of immune cells, specifically macrophages, into the tumor microenvironment has been linked to increased mammary tumor formation and progression. Activation of growth factor receptor signaling pathways within mammary epithelial cells, such as the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) pathway, induces recruitment of macrophages to the mammary epithelium. These macrophages promote increased epithelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis. However, the specific mechanisms by which these macrophages are regulated by the preneoplastic epithelial cells and the mechanisms of action of the macrophages within the developing FGFR1-driven tumor microenvironment remain unknown. In this study, we show that activation of inducible FGFR1 in mammary glands leads to decreased activity of the TGFβ/Smad3 pathway in macrophages associated with early stage lesions. Further studies show that macrophages have increased expression of inflammatory chemokines that bind Cxcr2 following exposure to conditioned media from mammary epithelial and tumor cells in which the FGF pathway had been activated. The increase in these ligands is inhibited following activation of the TGFβ pathway, suggesting that decreased TGFβ signaling contributes to the upregulation of these chemokines. Using coculture studies, we further show that macrophages are capable of promoting epithelial and tumor cell migration and invasion through activation of Cxcr2. These results indicate that macrophage-derived Cxcr2 ligands may be important for promoting mammary tumor formation regulated by FGFR signaling. Furthermore, these results suggest that targeting Cxcr2 may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for breast cancers that are associated with high levels of infiltrating macrophages. Mol Cancer Res; 10(10); 1294-305. ©2012 AACR.
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ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is characterized by a distinct metastatic pattern involving the regional lymph nodes, bone marrow, lung and liver. Tumour cell migration and metastasis share many similarities with leukocyte trafficking, which is critically regulated by chemokines and their receptors. Here we report that the chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR7 are highly expressed in human breast cancer cells, malignant breast tumours and metastases. Their respective ligands CXCL12/SDF-1alpha and CCL21/6Ckine exhibit peak levels of expression in organs representing the first destinations of breast cancer metastasis. In breast cancer cells, signalling through CXCR4 or CCR7 mediates actin polymerization and pseudopodia formation, and subsequently induces chemotactic and invasive responses. In vivo, neutralizing the interactions of CXCL12/CXCR4 significantly impairs metastasis of breast cancer cells to regional lymph nodes and lung. Malignant melanoma, which has a similar metastatic pattern as breast cancer but also a high incidence of skin metastases, shows high expression levels of CCR10 in addition to CXCR4 and CCR7. Our findings indicate that chemokines and their receptors have a critical role in determining the metastatic destination of tumour cells.Nature 04/2001; 410(6824):50-6. · 36.28 Impact Factor