Q Fever Cluster Among Raw Milk Drinkers in Michigan, 2011

Bureau of Disease Control Prevention and Epidemiology, Michigan Department of Community Health, Lansing.
Clinical Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 8.89). 08/2012; 55(10):1387-9. DOI: 10.1093/cid/cis690
Source: PubMed


Q fever is a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, a unique bacterium that is widespread but infrequently associated with human illness or outbreaks. We report on evidence of infection with C. burnetii in a small group of regular consumers of raw (unpasteurized) milk from the same dairy in Michigan.

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    • "Inhalation is thought to be the most common mode of transmission, but the organism can also be spread by tick vectors and ingestion [6]. Milk is the primary source of food-borne C. burnetii; an infection source that had decreased with pasteurization but has recently been increasing with the ‘raw milk’ movement [7]. While the risk of contracting disease following consumption, or handling, of other tissues is less understood, disease outbreaks have occurred in slaughterhouse and meat processing facilities [8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) is an important cultural and nutritional resource for the Aleut community on St. Paul Island Alaska. In recent years, an increasing number of zoonotic pathogens have been identified in the population, but the public health significance of these findings is unknown. To determine the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii and Brucella spp. in northern fur seal tissues, eight tissue types from 50 subsistence-harvested fur seals were tested for bacterial DNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction.FindingsOf the 400 samples tested, only a single splenic sample was positive for Brucella spp. and the cycle threshold (ct) value was extremely high suggesting a low concentration of DNA within the tissue. C. burnetii DNA was not detected.Conclusions Findings suggest that the risk of humans contracting brucellosis or Q fever from the consumption of harvested northern fur seals is low.
    Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 10/2014; 56(1):67. DOI:10.1186/s13028-014-0067-x · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    • "A recent report found that 94% of bulk tank milk samples collected from US dairy herds contained C. burnetii specific DNA [6]. Loftis and others detected C. burnetii in 42.9% (9/21) of commercial raw milk samples in the US [7], and a recent case report found Q fever clusters among raw milk consumers in the State of Michigan [4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Goats are known reservoirs of Coxiella burnetii, the etiologic agent of Q fever. However, there has been very little research on the prevalence of C. burnetii exposure and risk in meat goats farmed in the US. Banked serum samples were secondarily tested for C. burnetii specific antibodies. Findings The animal and herd-level seroprevalence estimates for C. burnetii were 1.2% (3/249) and 4.2% (1/24) respectively. Within-herd seroprevalence ranged from 0% to 1.2%. Conclusions This study indicates that seroprevalence of C. burnetii in Boer goats raised in Missouri was low, but it does not preclude the existence of a higher level of infection in Missouri’s meat goat herds. This result is inconclusive because this study was disadvantaged by the small number of individual animal and herds tested, which compromised the statistical power of this study to detect a possible higher seroprevalence of C. burnetii in this population, if present. More research is warranted to corroborate the preliminary findings reported here in order to determine the public health significance C. burnetii infection risks associated with contemporary goat production systems in the US.
    BMC Research Notes 07/2014; 7(1):421. DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-7-421
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    ABSTRACT: Coxiella burnetii, the etiologic agent of Q fever, is a worldwide zoonotic pathogen. Although Q fever is present in the United States, little is known about its current incidence or geographic distribution in either humans or animals. Published reports of national disease surveillance, individual cases, outbreak investigations, and serologic surveys were reviewed to better characterize Q fever epidemiology in the United States. In national disease surveillance reports for 1948-1986, 1,396 human cases were reported from almost every state. Among published individual case reports and outbreak investigations, occupational exposures (research facilities, farm environments, slaughterhouses) were commonly reported, and sheep were most frequently implicated as a possible source of infection. In studies conducted on specific groups, livestock handlers had a significantly higher prevalence of antibodies to C. burnetii than did persons with no known risk. Animal studies showed wide variation in seroprevalence, with goats having a significantly higher average seroprevalence (41.6%) than sheep (16.5%) or cattle (3.4%). Evidence of antibody to C. burnetii was reported among various wild-animal species, including coyotes, foxes, rodents, skunks, raccoons, rabbits, deer, and birds. This literature review suggests that C. burnetii is enzootic among ruminants and wild animals throughout much of the United States and that there is widespread human exposure to this pathogen. Sheep and goats appear to be a more important risk for human infection in the United States than cattle or wild animals, and research studies examining the natural history and transmission risk of Q fever in sheep and goats in this country should be encouraged.
    Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 02/2002; 2(3):179-91. DOI:10.1089/15303660260613747 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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