The non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse as a model of human type 1 diabetes.
ABSTRACT The non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse spontaneously develops type 1 diabetes (T1D) and has thus served as a model for understanding the genetic and immunological basis, and treatment, of T1D. Since its initial description in 1980, however, the field has matured and recognized that prevention of diabetes in NOD mice (i.e., preventing the disease from occurring by an intervention prior to frank diabetes) is relatively easy to achieve and does not correlate well with curing the disease (after the onset of frank hyperglycemia). Hundreds of papers have described the prevention of diabetes in NOD mice but only a handful have described its actual reversal. The paradoxical conclusion is that preventing the disease in NOD mice does not necessarily tell us what caused the disease nor how to reverse it. The NOD mouse model is therefore best used now, with respect to human disease, as a way to understand the genetic and immunologic causes of and as a model for trying to reverse disease once hyperglycemia occurs. We describe how genetic approaches to identifying causative gene variants can be adapted to identify novel therapeutic agents for reversing new-onset T1D.
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ABSTRACT: Nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice are genetically programmed to spontaneously develop type one diabetes (T1D). Multiple Insulin dependent diabetes (Idd) genetic loci have been identified but their functional effects are mostly poorly understood. TnfsfR9, expressing the protein product CD137, is a strong candidate gene in the Idd9.3 locus, and NOD.B10 Idd9.3 mice are significantly protected from type one diabetes (T1D). We previously showed that nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice have a deficiency in the numbers of CD137(pos) T regulatory cells, that CD137(pos) Tregs are the source of soluble CD137 (sCD137), and that NOD mice have low serum levels of sCD137. To test the hypothesis that correcting low levels of sCD137 could affect the disease, we constructed a lentiviral vector producing recombinant sCD137; this physiologic sCD137 is glycosylated and exists primarily as a dimer. NOD mice treated with the recombinant sCD137 are protected from developing T1D. Insulitis is significantly decreased, but not eliminated in the sCD137 treated mice, however insulin producing pancreatic beta cells are preserved despite residual insulitis. To begin to understand the protective immune mechanisms of sCD137, we tested sCD137 in vitro. It was previously suggested that sCD137 simply blocked the interaction between CD137 (on T cells) and CD137 ligand (on antigen presenting cells (APCs)). Here however, we use an APC independent assay and demonstrate that sCD137 can actively suppress highly purified CD4 T cells in a CD137L dependent fashion. These results support the hypothesis that sCD137 acts in a negative feedback loop to actively suppress over-zealous immune responses, and that it can be used clinically to suppress autoimmunity. sCD137 is an important Treg derived natural immunosuppressive molecule that regulates effector T cells to avert diabetes in vivo.Journal of Autoimmunity 10/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.jaut.2013.09.002 · 7.02 Impact Factor
Diabetes 06/2014; 63(6):1833-5. DOI:10.2337/db14-0371 · 7.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Momordica charantia is a well known medicinal plant used in the traditional medicinal system for the treatment of various diseases including diabetes mellitus. Recently, a novel protein termed as ADMc1 from the seed extract of M. charantia has been identified and isolated showing significant antihyperglycemic activity in type 1 diabetic rats in which diabetes was induced. However, the structure of this protein has not yet been analyzed. Homology modeling approach was used to generate a high quality protein 3D structure for the amino acid sequence of the ADMc1 protein in this study. The comparative assessment of secondary structures revealed ADMc1 as an all-alpha helix protein with random coils. Tertiary structure predicted on the template structure of Napin of B. Napus (PDB ID: 1SM7) with which the ADMc1 showed significant sequence similarity, was validated using protein structure validation tools like PROCHECK, WHAT_CHECK, VERIFY3D and ProSA. Arrangement of disulfide bridges formed by cysteine residues were predicted by the Dianna 1.1 server. The presence of multiple disulfide bond confers the stable nature of the ADMc1 protein. Further, the biological activity of the ADMc1 was assessed in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice which are spontaneous model of type 1 diabetes. Significant reduction in the blood glucose levels of NOD mice was observed up to 8 h post administration of the rADMc1 protein. Overall, the structural characterizations with antihyperglycemic activity of this seed protein of Momordica charantia demonstrate its potential as an antidiabetic agent.Bioinformation 08/2013; 9(15):766-70. DOI:10.6026/97320630009766 · 0.50 Impact FactorThis article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched formatRG Format enables you to read in context with side-by-side figures, citations, and feedback from experts in your field.