The Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) Mouse as a Model of Human Type 1 Diabetes

Division of Immunology, Allergy, and Rheumatology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) (Impact Factor: 1.29). 08/2012; 933:3-16. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-62703-068-7_1
Source: PubMed


The non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse spontaneously develops type 1 diabetes (T1D) and has thus served as a model for understanding the genetic and immunological basis, and treatment, of T1D. Since its initial description in 1980, however, the field has matured and recognized that prevention of diabetes in NOD mice (i.e., preventing the disease from occurring by an intervention prior to frank diabetes) is relatively easy to achieve and does not correlate well with curing the disease (after the onset of frank hyperglycemia). Hundreds of papers have described the prevention of diabetes in NOD mice but only a handful have described its actual reversal. The paradoxical conclusion is that preventing the disease in NOD mice does not necessarily tell us what caused the disease nor how to reverse it. The NOD mouse model is therefore best used now, with respect to human disease, as a way to understand the genetic and immunologic causes of and as a model for trying to reverse disease once hyperglycemia occurs. We describe how genetic approaches to identifying causative gene variants can be adapted to identify novel therapeutic agents for reversing new-onset T1D.

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    • "Also, the antihyperglycemic activity of this protein was established by inducing diabetes in animals, and not in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, the spontaneous model of type 1 diabetes. The NOD mice represent one of the primary experimental models of T1DM for screening of therapeutics as these mice share many immunological and pathophysiological similarities to human insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus [13]. The present study reports comparative sequence analysis, prediction of secondary structural components, 3-dimensional structural model using in silico homology modeling and antihyperglycemic activity of the rADMc1 in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. "
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between pulpal and/or periodontal disease and serum creatinine levels in a rat model of diabetes mellitus. Methods: Eighty male rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus, Wistar) were divided into the following 8 groups compris- ing 10 animals each: normal (G1), with pulpal disease (G2), with periodontal disease (G3), with both pulpal and periodontal disease (G4), diabetic (G5), diabetic with pulpal disease (G6), diabetic with periodontal disease (G7), and diabetic with both pulpal and periodontal disease (G8). Diabetes was induced by injecting streptozotocin, pul- pal disease were induced by exposing pulpal tissue to the oral environment, and periodontal disease was induced by periodontal ligature. After 30 days, blood was collected by cardiac puncture and the animals were killed. The maxillae were processed for histopathology. Serum creatinine levels were measured by the enzymatic method. The total assessed values were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance and Tukey’s test (p < 0.05). Results:􏰢􏰣􏰥􏰲􏰤􏰯􏰢􏰳􏰲􏰥􏰬􏰴􏰪􏰫􏰪􏰫􏰥􏰢􏰦􏰥􏰵􏰥􏰦􏰶􏰢􏰷􏰥􏰲􏰥􏰢􏰶􏰪􏰩􏰫􏰪􏰱􏰳􏰬􏰫􏰴􏰦􏰧􏰢􏰸􏰪􏰩􏰸􏰥􏰲􏰢􏰪􏰫􏰢􏰹􏰪􏰬􏰺􏰥􏰴􏰪􏰳􏰢􏰲􏰬􏰴􏰶􏰢􏰴􏰸􏰬􏰫􏰢􏰴􏰸􏰬􏰴􏰢􏰪􏰫􏰢􏰬􏰦􏰦􏰢􏰫􏰮􏰲􏰯􏰮􏰩􏰦􏰧􏰳􏰥􏰯􏰪􏰳􏰢􏰲􏰬􏰴􏰶􏰢􏰻􏰼􏰢􏰽􏰢 0.05). The presence of pulpal and periodontal disease increased the serum creatinine levels in normoglycemic and diabetic rats, but there was no statistical difference between the groups (p > 0.05). Conclusions: We found that the serum creatinine level was higher in diabetic rats and may be related to the pres- ence of oral infections. 􏰾􏰦􏰪􏰫􏰪􏰳􏰬􏰦􏰢􏰶􏰪􏰩􏰫􏰪􏰱􏰳􏰬􏰫􏰳􏰥􏰿􏰢Changes in serum creatinine level may be related to the presence of oral infections and diabetes. Keywords: Diabetes; Apical Periodontitis; Periodontal Disease; Creatinine Level
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