Choice of Initial Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in Individuals With HIV Infection
Archives of internal medicine (Impact Factor: 17.33). 08/2012; 172(17):1-9. DOI: 10.1001/archinternmed.2012.3216
BACKGROUND Current guidelines give recommendations for preferred combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). We investigated factors influencing the choice of initial cART in clinical practice and its outcome. METHODS We analyzed treatment-naive adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection participating in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study and starting cART from January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2009. The primary end point was the choice of the initial antiretroviral regimen. Secondary end points were virologic suppression, the increase in CD4 cell counts from baseline, and treatment modification within 12 months after starting treatment. RESULTS A total of 1957 patients were analyzed. Tenofovir-emtricitabine (TDF-FTC)-efavirenz was the most frequently prescribed cART (29.9%), followed by TDF-FTC-lopinavir/r (16.9%), TDF-FTC-atazanavir/r (12.9%), zidovudine-lamivudine (ZDV-3TC)-lopinavir/r (12.8%), and abacavir/lamivudine (ABC-3TC)-efavirenz (5.7%). Differences in prescription were noted among different Swiss HIV Cohort Study sites (P < .001). In multivariate analysis, compared with TDF-FTC-efavirenz, starting TDF-FTC-lopinavir/r was associated with prior AIDS (relative risk ratio, 2.78; 95% CI, 1.78-4.35), HIV-RNA greater than 100 000 copies/mL (1.53; 1.07-2.18), and CD4 greater than 350 cells/μL (1.67; 1.04-2.70); TDF-FTC-atazanavir/r with a depressive disorder (1.77; 1.04-3.01), HIV-RNA greater than 100 000 copies/mL (1.54; 1.05-2.25), and an opiate substitution program (2.76; 1.09-7.00); and ZDV-3TC-lopinavir/r with female sex (3.89; 2.39-6.31) and CD4 cell counts greater than 350 cells/μL (4.50; 2.58-7.86). At 12 months, 1715 patients (87.6%) achieved viral load less than 50 copies/mL and CD4 cell counts increased by a median (interquartile range) of 173 (89-269) cells/μL. Virologic suppression was more likely with TDF-FTC-efavirenz, and CD4 increase was higher with ZDV-3TC-lopinavir/r. No differences in outcome were observed among Swiss HIV Cohort Study sites. CONCLUSIONS Large differences in prescription but not in outcome were observed among study sites. A trend toward individualized cART was noted suggesting that initial cART is significantly influenced by physician's preference and patient characteristics. Our study highlights the need for evidence-based data for determining the best initial regimen for different HIV-infected persons.
- Archives of internal medicine 08/2012; 172(17):1-3. DOI:10.1001/archinternmed.2012.3644 · 17.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: News related to HIV/AIDS was marked in 2012 both by emerging therapies, as well as by the changes management strategies. Therefore, we will discuss the crucial issue of when to start antiretroviral therapy, which appears to be more and more early. Furthermore, after the U.S. validation of the pre-exposure prophylaxis for individuals at high risk of HIV acquisition, prevention of HIV transmission has returned to the spotlight. Finally, we will review some promising novel molecules whose mechanisms of action, half-life or low dosage open the door to new treatment strategies.Revue médicale suisse 01/2013; 9(369):150-5.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Since 2002, the WHO has recommended either nevirapine (NVP) or efavirenz (EFV) as part of first-line antiretroviral therapy. These two drugs are known to have differing toxicity profiles, but the risk of these toxicities overall is not well established. Methods: We systematically reviewed adverse events among treatment-naive HIV-positive adults and children receiving either NVP or EFV as part of first-line antiretroviral therapy. The primary outcome was drug discontinuation as a result of any adverse event; specific toxicities were evaluated as secondary outcomes. Point estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated and proportions and odds ratios (ORs) pooled using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Results: We reviewed data on 26,446 adults and 3975 children from eight randomized trials and 26 prospective cohorts. Overall, adults on NVP were more than two times more likely to discontinue treatment due to any adverse event compared to patients on EFV (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.9-2.6). Severe hepatotoxicity (OR 3.3, 95% CI 2.5-4.2), severe skin toxicity (OR 3.9, 95% CI 2.5-5.4), and severe hypersensitivity reactions (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.9-2.9) were more likely to occur among patients on NVP. Patients receiving EFV were more likely to experience severe central nervous system events (OR 3.4, 95% CI 2.1-5.4). Similar associations were seen in children. Discussion: Compared to NVP, EFV is associated with a lower frequency of severe adverse events, in particular treatment discontinuations. This finding supports a move toward EFV-based therapy as the preferred first-line treatment regimen for HIV treatment within a public health approach.AIDS (London, England) 01/2013; 27(9). DOI:10.1097/QAD.0b013e32835f1db0 · 5.55 Impact Factor
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