Novel TARDBP Sequence Variant and C9ORF72 Repeat Expansion in a Family With Frontotemporal Dementia.
ABSTRACT Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a genetically heterogenous syndrome and has been associated most recently with a hexanucleotide repeat expansion within the C9ORF72 gene. Pathogenic TDP-43 gene (TARDBP) mutations have been identified in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, but the role of TARDBP mutations in FTLD is more contradictory. To investigate the role of TARDBP mutations in a clinical series of Finnish FTLD patients, we sequenced TARDBP exons 1 to 6 in 77 FTLD patients. No evident pathogenic mutations were found. We identified a novel heterozygous c.876_878delCAG sequence variant in 2 related patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia without amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The variant is predicted to cause an amino acid deletion of serine at position 292 (p.Ser292del). However, p.Ser292del was also found in 1 healthy middle-aged control. Interestingly, both patients carried the C9ORF72 expansion. Therefore, the TARDBP variant p.Ser292del might be considered a rare polymorphism and the C9ORF72 repeat expansion the actual disease-causing mutation in the family. Our results suggest that TARDBP mutations are a rare cause of FTLD. However, the interaction of several genetic factors needs to be taken into account when investigating neurodegenerative diseases.
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ABSTRACT: Hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9ORF72 is the most common genetic cause of frontotemporal dementia (FTD), a predominantly behavioral disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a disease of motor neurons. The primary objectives of this review are to highlight the clinical heterogeneity associated with C9ORF72 pathogenic expansion and identify potential molecular mechanisms underlying selective vulnerability of distinct neural populations. The proposed mechanisms by which C9ORF72 expansion causes behavioral and motor neuron disease highlight the emerging role of impaired RNA and protein homeostasis in a spectrum of neurodegeneration and strengthen the biological connection between FTD and ALS.American journal of neurodegenerative disease. 01/2014; 3(1):1-18.
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ABSTRACT: To identify potential genetic modifiers contributing to the phenotypic variability that is detected in patients with repeat expansions in chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9ORF72), we investigated the frequency of these expansions in a cohort of 334 subjects previously found to carry mutations in genes known to be associated with a spectrum of neurodegenerative diseases. A 2-step protocol, with a fluorescent PCR and a repeat-primed PCR, was used to determine the presence of hexanucleotide expansions in C9ORF72. For one double mutant, we performed Southern blots to assess expansion sizes, and immunohistochemistry to characterize neuropathology. We detected C9ORF72 repeat expansions in 4 of 334 subjects (1.2% [or 1.8% of 217 families]). All these subjects had behavioral phenotypes and also harbored well-known pathogenic mutations in either progranulin (GRN: p.C466LfsX46, p.R493X, p.C31LfsX35) or microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT: p.P301L). Southern blotting of one double mutant with a p.C466LfsX46 GRN mutation demonstrated a long repeat expansion in brain (>3,000 repeats), and immunohistochemistry showed mixed neuropathology with characteristics of both C9ORF72 expansions and GRN mutations. Our findings indicate that co-occurrence of 2 evidently pathogenic mutations could contribute to the pleiotropy that is detected in patients with C9ORF72 repeat expansions. These findings suggest that patients with known mutations should not be excluded from further studies, and that genetic counselors should be aware of this phenomenon when advising patients and their family members.Neurology 09/2013; · 8.25 Impact Factor