Tissue platinum concentration and tumor response in non-small-cell lung cancer.
ABSTRACT PURPOSE Platinum resistance is a major limitation in the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Reduced intracellular drug accumulation is one of the most consistently identified features of platinum-resistant cell lines, but clinical data are limited. We assessed the effects of tissue platinum concentrations on response and survival in NSCLC. PATIENTS AND METHODS We measured total platinum concentrations by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry in 44 archived fresh-frozen NSCLC specimens from patients who underwent surgical resection after neoadjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy. Tissue platinum concentration was correlated with percent reduction in tumor size on post- versus prechemotherapy computed tomography scans. The relationship between tissue platinum concentration and survival was assessed by univariate and multicovariate Cox proportional hazards regression model analysis and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results Tissue platinum concentration correlated significantly with percent reduction in tumor size (P < .001). The same correlations were seen with cisplatin, carboplatin, and all histology subgroups. Furthermore, there was no significant impact of potential variables such as number of cycles and time lapse from last chemotherapy on platinum concentration. Patients with higher platinum concentration had longer time to recurrence (P = .034), progression-free survival (P = .018), and overall survival (P = .005) in the multicovariate Cox model analysis after adjusting for number of cycles. CONCLUSION This clinical study established a relationship between tissue platinum concentration and response in NSCLC. It suggests that reduced platinum accumulation might be an important mechanism of platinum resistance in the clinical setting. Further studies investigating factors that modulate intracellular platinum concentration are warranted.
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ABSTRACT: Cisplatin [cis-diammineplatinum dichloride (DDP)] resistance is a major limitation in the treatment of lung cancer. We previously demonstrated that DDP dissolved in 5% ethanol (5% ethanol-DDP) injected intratumorally was able to eradicate DDP-resistant lung tumors and prolong survival, as 5% ethanol improved DDP delivery to the tumor. The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of DDP in various concentrations of ethanol and determine the optimal ethanol concentration in which DDP exhibits optimal efficacy in reducing tumor volume and prolonging survival. The efficiency of DDP dissolved in 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50% ethanol (v/v) in DDP-resistant A549/DDP lung tumor-bearing Balb/C nude mice was investigated. Tumor growth and survival were evaluated in all the treatment groups. Microvessel density in xenograft tumor tissues was measured by immunohistochemistry. Our results revealed that 5% ethanol-DDP exhibited the highest efficiency in reducing tumor volume and prolonging survival among all the investigated ethanol-DDP combinations. We found that 5% ethanol-DDP produced the most significant inhibition of tumor angiogenesis among all the remaining ethanol-DDP combinations, while treatment with ethanol alone increased tumor angiogenesis. In conclusion, 5% ethanol-DDP produced the strongest tumor growth inhibition and longest survival among all the investigated ethanol-DDP combinations, possibly providing a novel therapeutic strategy for improving the survival of patients with DDP-resistant lung cancer. The potent inhibition of tumor angiogenesis by 5% ethanol-DDP may be one of the mechanisms underlying its superior efficiency.Molecular and Clinical Oncology 07/2014; 2(4):491-496.
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ABSTRACT: Silver complexes have been shown to possess antimicrobial and anticancer properties. Ag-SP-DNC, a novel silver and singly protonated dehydronorcantharidin complex, was synthesized in our previous study. In this study, we offer evidence that Ag-SP-DNC elicits a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis in lung cancer cells. Ag-SP-DNC inhibited the growth of A549 cells by inducing G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Ag-SP-DNC induced apoptosis was associated with the levels of intracellular ROS. The further study revealed that Ag-SP-DNC disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential, induced the caspase-3 activation and led to the translocation of apoptosis inducing factor and endonucleaseG to the nucleus. These findings have important implications for the development of silver complexes for anticancer applications.European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 08/2014; 86C:1-11. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cisplatin, a platinum-based chemotherapeutic drug, has been used for over 30 years in a wide variety of cancers with varying degrees of success. In particular, cisplatin has been used to treat late stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as the standard of care. However, therapeutic outcomes vary from patient to patient. Considerable efforts have been invested to identify biomarkers that can be used to predict cisplatin sensitivity in NSCLC. Here we reviewed current evidence for cisplatin sensitivity biomarkers in NSCLC. We focused on several key pathways, including nucleotide excision repair, drug transport and metabolism. Both expression and germline DNA variation were evaluated in these key pathways. Current evidence suggests that cisplatin-based treatment could be improved by the use of these biomarkers.Genomics Proteomics & Bioinformatics 10/2014;