Use of the CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc and HAS-BLED scores to aid decision making for thromboprophylaxis in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.

University of Birmingham Centre for Cardiovascular Sciences, City Hospital, Dudley Rd, Birmingham, B18 7QH, UK.
Circulation (Impact Factor: 14.95). 08/2012; 126(7):860-5. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.111.060061
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Electrical cardioversion (ECV) is recommended for rhythm control in patients with atrial arrhythmia; yet, ECV use and outcomes in contemporary practice are unknown. We reviewed all nonemergent ECVs for atrial arrhythmias at a tertiary care center (2010 to 2013), stratifying patients by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) use before ECV and comparing demographics, history, vitals, and laboratory studies. Outcomes included postprocedural success and complications and repeat cardioversion, rehospitalization, and death within 30 days. Overall, 1,017 patients underwent ECV, 760 (75%) for atrial fibrillation and 240 (24%) for atrial flutter; 633 underwent TEE before ECV and 384 did not. TEE recipients were more likely to be inpatients (74% vs 44%, p <0.001), have higher mean CHADS2 scores (2.6 vs 2.4, p = 0.03), and lower mean international normalized ratios (1.2 vs 2.1, p <0.001). Overall, 89 patients (8.8%) did not achieve sinus rhythm and 14 experienced procedural complications (1.4%). Within 30 days, 80 patients (7.9%) underwent repeat ECV, 113 (11%) were rehospitalized, and 14 (1.4%) died. Although ECV success was more common in patients who underwent TEE before ECV (77% vs 68%, p = 0.01), there were no differences in 30-day death or rehospitalization rates (11.1% vs 13.0%, p = 0.37). In multivariate analyses, higher pre-ECV heart rate was associated with increased rehospitalization or death (adjusted hazard ratio 1.15/10 beats/min, 95% confidence interval 1.07 to 1.24, p <0.001), whereas TEE use was associated with lower rates (adjusted hazard ratio 0.58, 95% confidence interval 0.39 to 0.86, p = 0.007). In conclusion, failures, complications, and rehospitalization after nonemergent ECV are common and associated more with patient condition than procedural characteristics. TEE use was associated with better clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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    ABSTRACT: In the kidney transplant population with atrial fibrillation (AF), evidence regarding the effectiveness and safety of warfarin treatment is lacking. We used fee-for-service Medicare claims to identify kidney transplant recipients with newly diagnosed AF from the United States Renal Data System. Warfarin use within 30 days of AF diagnosis was ascertained from Medicare Part D prescription claims (2007-11) or using a validated algorithm (1997-2011). The study end points were (i) the composite of death, stroke or gastrointestinal bleed, (ii) death and (iii) death-censored graft failure. Warfarin user and non-user groups were balanced using inverse probability of treatment weighting and hazard ratios were (HRs) estimated using Cox regression. Among 718 subjects with an indication for anticoagulation, 24% initiated warfarin treatment within 30 days of AF diagnosis. Age was the only independent correlate of warfarin use [odds ratio = 1.02 per year; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.01-1.04]. In the larger cohort of 6492 patients with AF, warfarin use [(23.5%) versus non-use (76.5%)] was associated with small and non-significant reductions in the composite of death, stroke or gastrointestinal bleed (HR = 0.92; 95% CI 0.83-1.02), death (HR = 0.92; 95% CI 0.82-1.02) and death-censored graft failure (HR = 0.90; 95% CI 0.76-1.08). Our study suggests the need for clinical trials of warfarin use in the kidney transplant population with AF.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 10/2014; 30(2). DOI:10.1093/ndt/gfu323 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia seen in clinical practice with prevalence in excess of 33 million worldwide. Although often asymptomatic and until recently considered a “benign” arrhythmia, it is now appreciated that thromboembolism resulting from AF results in significant morbidity and mortality predominantly due to stroke. Although an arrhythmia more commonly affecting the elderly, AF can also occur in the young. This review focuses on the impact of AF in the younger population and discusses the dilemmas of managing younger patients with AF.
    01/2015; 2015:1-9. DOI:10.1155/2015/374352