Meat intake and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
ABSTRACT We conducted a population-based, case-control study to test the hypothesis that consumption of meat and meat-related mutagens increases the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), and whether the associations are modified by N-acetyltransferase (NAT) 1 and 2. Participants (336 cases and 460 controls) completed a 117-item food frequency questionnaire. The risk of NHL was associated with a higher intake of red meat (OR = 1.5; CI, 1.1-2.2), total fat (OR = 1.4; CI, 1.0-2.1), and oleic acid (OR = 1.5; CI, 1.0-2.2). NHL risk was also associated with a higher intake of very well-done pork (OR = 2.5; 95 % CI, 1.4-4.3) and the meat-related mutagen MeIQx (OR = 1.6; 95 % CI, 1.1-2.3). Analyses of the major NHL histologic subtypes showed a positive association between diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and higher intake of red meat (OR = 2.1; 95 % CI, 1.1-3.9) and the association was largely due to meat-related mutagens as a positive association was observed for higher intakes of both MeIQx (OR = 2.4; 95 % CI, 1.2-4.6) and DiMeIQx (OR = 1.9; 95 % CI, 1.0-3.5). Although the OR for follicular lymphoma (FL) was also increased with a higher red meat intake (OR = 1.9; 95 % CI, 1.1-3.3), the association appeared to be due to increased oleic acid (OR = 1.7; 95 % CI: 0.9-3.1). We found no evidence that polymorphisms in NAT1 or NAT2 modify the association between NHL and meat-related mutagens. Our results provide further evidence that red meat consumption is associated with an increase in NHL risk, and new evidence that the specific components of meat, namely fat and meat-related mutagens, may be impacting NHL subtype risk differently.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The etiology of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is poorly understood. Obesity is associated with inflammation, a cytokine milieu conducive to lymphocyte proliferation, and has been associated with NHL risk in some epidemiologic studies. To prospectively examine NHL risk in relation to adult and earlier life obesity, we documented 635 incident NHL diagnoses among 46,390 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study and 1254 diagnoses among 116,794 women in the Nurses' Health Study over 22-32 years of follow-up. Using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models we estimated cohort-specific incidence rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for risk of NHL and major histologic subtypes associated with cumulative average middle and young adult (ages 18-21) body mass index (BMI) and adolescent and childhood somatotype. NHL risk was modestly increased in men (but not women) with a cumulative average middle adult BMI ≥30 kg/m2 (vs. 15-22.9 kg/m2; RR: 1.28; 95% CI: 0.92, 1.77; P-trend=0.05). In meta-analyses across cohorts, higher young adult BMI was associated with increased risk of all NHL (pooled RR per 5 kg/m2: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.37), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and follicular lymphoma (FL) (all P-trend≤0.02). Adolescent somatotype was also positively associated with all NHL, DLBCL, and FL in pooled analyses (all P-trend ≤0.03) while childhood somatotype was positively associated with NHL overall among women only (P-trend <0.01). These findings in two large prospective cohorts provide novel evidence that larger body size in childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood predicts increased risk of NHL, and particularly of DLBCL and FL.Cancer Prevention Research 06/2013; · 4.89 Impact Factor