Meat intake and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma
Department of Health Studies, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, N101B, Chicago, IL, 60637, USA, .Cancer Causes and Control (Impact Factor: 2.74). 08/2012; 23(10):1681-92. DOI: 10.1007/s10552-012-0047-2
We conducted a population-based, case-control study to test the hypothesis that consumption of meat and meat-related mutagens increases the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), and whether the associations are modified by N-acetyltransferase (NAT) 1 and 2. Participants (336 cases and 460 controls) completed a 117-item food frequency questionnaire. The risk of NHL was associated with a higher intake of red meat (OR = 1.5; CI, 1.1-2.2), total fat (OR = 1.4; CI, 1.0-2.1), and oleic acid (OR = 1.5; CI, 1.0-2.2). NHL risk was also associated with a higher intake of very well-done pork (OR = 2.5; 95 % CI, 1.4-4.3) and the meat-related mutagen MeIQx (OR = 1.6; 95 % CI, 1.1-2.3). Analyses of the major NHL histologic subtypes showed a positive association between diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and higher intake of red meat (OR = 2.1; 95 % CI, 1.1-3.9) and the association was largely due to meat-related mutagens as a positive association was observed for higher intakes of both MeIQx (OR = 2.4; 95 % CI, 1.2-4.6) and DiMeIQx (OR = 1.9; 95 % CI, 1.0-3.5). Although the OR for follicular lymphoma (FL) was also increased with a higher red meat intake (OR = 1.9; 95 % CI, 1.1-3.3), the association appeared to be due to increased oleic acid (OR = 1.7; 95 % CI: 0.9-3.1). We found no evidence that polymorphisms in NAT1 or NAT2 modify the association between NHL and meat-related mutagens. Our results provide further evidence that red meat consumption is associated with an increase in NHL risk, and new evidence that the specific components of meat, namely fat and meat-related mutagens, may be impacting NHL subtype risk differently.
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ABSTRACT: The etiology of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is poorly understood. Obesity is associated with inflammation, a cytokine milieu conducive to lymphocyte proliferation, and has been associated with NHL risk in some epidemiologic studies. To prospectively examine NHL risk in relation to adult and earlier life obesity, we documented 635 incident NHL diagnoses among 46,390 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study and 1254 diagnoses among 116,794 women in the Nurses' Health Study over 22-32 years of follow-up. Using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models we estimated cohort-specific incidence rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for risk of NHL and major histologic subtypes associated with cumulative average middle and young adult (ages 18-21) body mass index (BMI) and adolescent and childhood somatotype. NHL risk was modestly increased in men (but not women) with a cumulative average middle adult BMI ≥30 kg/m2 (vs. 15-22.9 kg/m2; RR: 1.28; 95% CI: 0.92, 1.77; P-trend=0.05). In meta-analyses across cohorts, higher young adult BMI was associated with increased risk of all NHL (pooled RR per 5 kg/m2: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.37), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and follicular lymphoma (FL) (all P-trend≤0.02). Adolescent somatotype was also positively associated with all NHL, DLBCL, and FL in pooled analyses (all P-trend ≤0.03) while childhood somatotype was positively associated with NHL overall among women only (P-trend <0.01). These findings in two large prospective cohorts provide novel evidence that larger body size in childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood predicts increased risk of NHL, and particularly of DLBCL and FL.Cancer Prevention Research 06/2013; 6(8). DOI:10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-13-0132 · 4.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: While the incidence of non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) has been rising worldwide, the reasons remain undefined. Recent research has focused on effect of red andf processed meat intake as a risk factor, but with inconclusive results. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis of data published to date, to ascertain the overall association between intake and NHL. A published literature search was performed through Pubmed, Cochrane Library, Medline, and Science Citation Index Expanded databases for articles published in English. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were calculated using random or fixed effects models. Heterogeneity was assessed using Chi-square and I2 statistics. Dissemination bias was evaluated by funnel plot analysis.We performed a formal meta-analysis using summary measures from these studies. In total, 11 published studies were included in the final analysis. The combined analysis revealed that there was significant association between the red meat and NHL risk (OR=1.10, 95%CI: 1.02 to 1.19, p=0.01). Additionally, there was showed significance association between processed red meat and NHL risk (OR=1.17, 95%CI: 1.06 to 1.29, p=0.001). In subgroup analysis, a statistical significant association was noted between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (OR=1.20, 95%CI: 1.04 to 2.37, P=0.01) and red meat intake. In this meta-Analysis, there was evidence for association between consumption of red meat, or processed meat and risk of NHL, particularly with the DLBCL subtype in the red meat case.Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 01/2014; 15(23):10421-5. DOI:10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.23.10421 · 2.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To understand the possible effect of modifiable health behaviors on the prognosis of the increasing number of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) survivors, we examined the pre-diagnostic intake of major food groups with all-cause and NHL-specific survival in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC). This analysis included 2339 participants free of NHL at cohort entry and diagnosed with NHL as identified by cancer registries during follow-up. Deaths were ascertained through routine linkages to state and national death registries. Cox proportional hazards regression was applied to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for overall and NHL-specific mortality according to pre-diagnostic intake of vegetables, fruits, red meat, processed meat, fish, legumes, dietary fiber, dairy products and soy foods assessed by food frequency questionnaire. The mean age at diagnosis was 71.8±8.5 years. During 4.5±4.1 years of follow-up, 1348 deaths, including 903 NHL-specific deaths, occurred. In multivariable models, dairy intake was associated with higher all-cause mortality (highest vs lowest tertile: HR=1.14, 95% CI 1.00-1.31, Ptrend=0.03) and NHL-specific (HR=1.16, 95% CI 0.98-1.37) mortality. Legume intake above the lowest tertile was related to significant 13-16% lower all-cause and NHL-specific mortality, whereas red meat and fish intake in the intermediate tertiles was associated with lower NHL-specific mortality. No association with survival was detected for the other food groups. These data suggest that pre-diagnostic dietary intake may not appreciably contribute to NHL survival, although the higher mortality for dairy products and the better prognosis associated with legumes agree with known biologic effects of these foods.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 2 September 2015; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2015.139.Experimental Biology Meeting; 04/2014
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