Efficacy spectrum of antishivering medications: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
ABSTRACT : Shivering after anesthesia or in the critical care setting is frequent, can be prolonged, and has the potential for serious adverse events and worsening outcomes. Furthermore, there are conflicting published data and clinical protocols on how to best treat shivering. In this study, we aimed to critically analyze the published evidence of antishivering medications.
: We systematically reviewed, categorized, and analyzed all literature on antishivering medications published in English. Target key words and study types were determined and major scientific databases (PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Ovid-Medline, and JAMA Evidence) and individual target journals were systematically searched up to August 1, 2011.
: Publications were categorized by the pharmacological intervention used, regardless of whether the subjects were ventilated, underwent surgery, received anesthesia, or received additional medications. Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trials investigating antishivering treatment were extracted and evaluated for clinical and statistical homogeneity and, if suitable, included in a subsequent meta-analysis using linear comparisons calculating shivering risk-reduction ratios.
: A total of 41 individual and eight combination antishivering medications were tested in 124 publications containing 208 substudies and recruiting a total of 9,668 subjects. Among those, 80 publications containing 119 substudies were identified as randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled of which 94 substudies were subjected to linear comparison analysis.
: Study drug frequencies, calculated pooled risk benefits, and pooled numbers needed to treat of the five most frequently studied and efficacious medications were clonidine (22 studies; risk ratio: 1.6, numbers needed to treat: 4), meperidine (16; 2.2, 2), tramadol (8; 2.2, 2), nefopam (7; 2.1, 2), and ketamine (7; 1.8, 3).
: There is significant heterogeneity in the literature with respect to study methods and efficacy testing of antishivering treatments. Clonidine, meperidine, tramadol, nefopam, and ketamine were the most frequently reported pharmacological interventions and showed a variable degree of efficacy in randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trials.
- 12/2011; 1(4):219-24. DOI:10.1089/ther.2011.1509
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ABSTRACT: Although office-based anesthesia for facial cosmetic surgery remains remarkably safe, no anesthesia or sedation performed outside the operating room should be considered minor. Proper organization, preparation, and patient selection, close collaboration with the surgeon, and expert and effective anesthesia care will increase patient safety and improve perioperative outcomes and patient satisfaction. This article presents a comprehensive overview of anesthesia in terms of facial plastic surgery procedures, beginning with a broad review of essentials and pitfalls of anesthesia, followed by details of specific anesthetic agents, their administration, mechanism of action, and complications.Facial plastic surgery clinics of North America 11/2013; 21(4):559-77. DOI:10.1016/j.fsc.2013.07.011 · 1.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A large body of evidence supports the existence of an endogenous glutamate system that tonically modulates body temperature via N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Ketamine and magnesium, both NMDA receptor antagonists, are known for their anesthetic, analgesic and anti-shivering properties. This study is aimed at evaluating the effects of ketamine and magnesium sulphate on body temperature in rats, and to determine the type of interaction between them. The body temperature was measured by insertion of a thermometer probe 5 cm into the colon of unrestrained male Wistar rats (200–250 g). Magnesium sulphate (5 and 60 mg/kg, sc) showed influence neither on baseline, nor on morphine-evoked hyperthermic response. Subanesthetic doses of ketamine (5–30 mg/kg, ip) given alone, produced significant dose-dependent reduction in both baseline colonic temperature and morphine-induced hyperthermia. Analysis of the log dose–response curves for the effects of ketamine and ketamine-magnesium sulphate combination on the baseline body temperature revealed synergistic interaction, and about 5.3 fold reduction in dosage of ketamine when the drugs were applied in fixed ratio (1:1) combinations. In addition, fixed low dose of magnesium sulphate (5 mg/kg, sc) enhanced the temperature lowering effect of ketamine (1.25-10 mg/kg, ip) on baseline body temperature and morphine-induced hyperthermia by factors of about 2.5 and 5.3, respectively. This study is first to demonstrate the synergistic interaction between magnesium sulphate and ketamine in a whole animal study and its statistical confirmation. It is possible that the synergy between ketamine and magnesium may have clinical relevance.Physiology & Behavior 03/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.physbeh.2014.01.006 · 3.03 Impact Factor