Efficacy spectrum of antishivering medications: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
ABSTRACT : Shivering after anesthesia or in the critical care setting is frequent, can be prolonged, and has the potential for serious adverse events and worsening outcomes. Furthermore, there are conflicting published data and clinical protocols on how to best treat shivering. In this study, we aimed to critically analyze the published evidence of antishivering medications.
: We systematically reviewed, categorized, and analyzed all literature on antishivering medications published in English. Target key words and study types were determined and major scientific databases (PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Ovid-Medline, and JAMA Evidence) and individual target journals were systematically searched up to August 1, 2011.
: Publications were categorized by the pharmacological intervention used, regardless of whether the subjects were ventilated, underwent surgery, received anesthesia, or received additional medications. Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trials investigating antishivering treatment were extracted and evaluated for clinical and statistical homogeneity and, if suitable, included in a subsequent meta-analysis using linear comparisons calculating shivering risk-reduction ratios.
: A total of 41 individual and eight combination antishivering medications were tested in 124 publications containing 208 substudies and recruiting a total of 9,668 subjects. Among those, 80 publications containing 119 substudies were identified as randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled of which 94 substudies were subjected to linear comparison analysis.
: Study drug frequencies, calculated pooled risk benefits, and pooled numbers needed to treat of the five most frequently studied and efficacious medications were clonidine (22 studies; risk ratio: 1.6, numbers needed to treat: 4), meperidine (16; 2.2, 2), tramadol (8; 2.2, 2), nefopam (7; 2.1, 2), and ketamine (7; 1.8, 3).
: There is significant heterogeneity in the literature with respect to study methods and efficacy testing of antishivering treatments. Clonidine, meperidine, tramadol, nefopam, and ketamine were the most frequently reported pharmacological interventions and showed a variable degree of efficacy in randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trials.
SourceAvailable from: Jean Baptiste Lascarrou[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Introduction: Neuromuscular blockade (NMB) is widely used during therapeutic hypothermia (TH) after cardiac arrest but its effect on patient outcomes is unclear. We compared the effects of NMB on neurological outcomes and frequency of early-onset pneumonia in cardiac-arrest survivors managed with TH. Methods: We retrospectively studied consecutive adult cardiac-arrest survivors managed with TH in a tertiary-level intensive care unit between January 2008 and July 2013. Patients given continuous NMB for persistent shivering were compared to those managed without NMB. Cases of early-onset pneumonia and vital status at ICU discharge were recorded. To avoid bias due to between-group baseline differences, we adjusted the analysis on a propensity score. Results: Of 311 cardiac-arrest survivors, 144 received TH, including 117 with continuous NMB and 27 without NMBs. ICU mortality was lower with NMB (hazard ratio [HR], 0.54 [0.32; 0.89], p = 0.016) but the difference was not significant after adjustment on the propensity score (HR, 0.70 [0.39; 1.25], p = 0.22). The proportion of patients with good neurological outcomes was not significantly different (36% with and 22% without NMB, p = 0.16). Early-onset pneumonia was more common with NMB (HR, 2.36 [1.24; 4.50], p = 0.009) but the difference was not significant after adjustment on the propensity score (HR, 1.68 [0.90; 3.16], p = 0.10). Conclusions: Continuous intravenous NMB during TH after cardiac arrest has potential owns effects on ICU survival with a trend increase in the frequency of early-onset pneumonia. Randomised controlled trials are needed to define the role for NMB among treatments for TH-induced shivering. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.Resuscitation 05/2014; 85(9). DOI:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2014.05.017 · 3.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dexmedetomidine (α2 adrenergic agonist) has been used for prevention of post anaesthesia shivering. Its use for the treatment of post-spinal anaesthesia shivering has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy, haemodynamic and adverse effects of dexmedetomidine with those of tramadol, when used for control of post-spinal anaesthesia shivering.Indian journal of anaesthesia 05/2014; 58(3):257-62. DOI:10.4103/0019-5049.135031
Journal of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology 07/2014; 30(3):338-9. DOI:10.4103/0970-9185.137263