Necesidades proteicas en los deportistas y pautas dietético-nutricionales para aumentar masa muscular

Revista Española de Nutrición Humana y Dietética 01/2012; 16:15-35.

ABSTRACT Uno de los efectos más importantes del entrenamiento de la fuerza es el
aumento de la hipertrofi a muscular. Para compensar sus limitaciones genéticas, los deportistas
deben tratar de optimizar los recursos dietético-nutricionales. El objetivo de la
presente revisión es analizar la evidencia científi ca del aporte proteico del deportista
según las diferentes modalidades deportivas. Dependiendo del gasto y el aporte energéticos
del deportista, el aporte total de proteínas de la ingesta energética diaria suele
suponer un 10-15%; sin embargo, es preferible calcular la cantidad proteica necesaria por
kg de peso corporal de cada individuo en concreto y según la disciplina deportiva. En este
sentido, se estima que para mantener la masa muscular los deportistas deben consumir
1,2-1,8 g de proteínas/kg/día, y para aumentarla (0,5 kg masa muscular/semana) deben
mantener una ingesta proteica de 1,6-1,8 g de proteína/kg/día, con un aumento de 400-
500 kcal en su dieta habitual, entendiendo que estas necesidades variarán según la modalidad
deportiva, la destrucción muscular generada, la masa muscular del atleta y los
depósitos de glucógeno. Es importante señalar que los depósitos de glucógeno muscular
y hepático vacíos aumentarían las necesidades proteicas para mantener la masa muscular.
Un exceso de ingesta de proteínas (> 2 g/kg/día) con las reservas de glucógeno agotadas
podría causar un aumento de la concentración de cuerpos cetónicos y urea, y producir,
entre otros, deshidratación precoz del deportista.


Available from: José Miguel Martínez Sanz, May 28, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This randomized double-blind cross-over study assessed protein (PRO) requirements during the early stages of intensive bodybuilding training and determined whether supplemental PRO intake (PROIN) enhanced muscle mass/strength gains. Twelve men [22.4 +/- 2.4 (SD) yr] received an isoenergetic PRO (total PROIN 2.62 or carbohydrate (CHO; total PROIN 1.35 supplement for 1 mo each during intensive (1.5 h/day, 6 days/wk) weight training. On the basis of 3-day nitrogen balance (NBAL) measurements after 3.5 wk on each treatment (8.9 +/- 4.2 and -3.4 +/- 1.9 g N/day, respectively), the PROIN necessary for zero NBAL (requirement) was 1.4-1.5 The recommended intake (requirement + 2 SD) was 1.6-1.7 However, strength (voluntary and electrically evoked) and muscle mass [density, creatinine excretion, muscle area (computer axial tomography scan), and biceps N content] gains were not different between diet treatments. These data indicate that, during the early stages of intensive bodybuilding training, PRO needs are approximately 100% greater than current recommendations but that PROIN increases from 1.35 to 2.62 do not enhance muscle mass/strength gains, at least during the 1st mo of training. Whether differential gains would occur with longer training remains to be determined.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 09/1992; 73(2):767-75. · 3.43 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Resistance exercise and nutritional provision are two independent and major stimuli of muscle protein synthesis and overall muscle growth. The focus of this review is on the regulation of muscle anabolism in humans after resistance exercise, nutritional provision, and a combination of the two.
    Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews 08/2003; 31(3):127-31. DOI:10.1097/00003677-200307000-00005 · 4.82 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent studies showed that a combination of carbohydrate and protein was more effective than carbohydrate alone for replenishing muscle glycogen after exercise. However, it remains to be unclear whether the source or degree of hydrolysis of dietary protein influences post-exercise glycogen accumulation. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of dietary protein type on glycogen levels in the post-exercise phase, and to investigate the effects of post-exercise carbohydrate and protein supplementation on phosphorylated enzymes of Akt/PKB and atypical PKCs. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, trained for 3 days, swam with a 2% load of body weight for 4 h to deplete skeletal muscle glycogen. Immediately after the glycogen-depleting exercise, one group was killed, whereas the other groups were given either glucose or glucose plus protein (whey protein, whey protein hydrolysates (WPH), casein hydrolysates or branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) solutions. After 2 h, the rats were killed, and the triceps muscles quickly excised. WPH caused significant increases in skeletal muscle glycogen level (5.01 +/- 0.24 mg/g), compared with whey protein (4.23 +/- 0.24 mg/g), BCAA (3.92 +/- 0.18 mg/g) or casein hydrolysates (2.73 +/- 0.22 mg/g). Post-exercise ingestion of glucose plus WPH significantly increased both phosphorylated Akt/PKB (131%) and phosphorylated PKCzeta (154%) levels compared with glucose only. There was a significant positive correlation between skeletal muscle glycogen content and phosphorylated Akt/PKB (r = 0.674, P < 0.001) and PKCzeta (r = 0.481, P = 0.017). Post-exercise supplementation with carbohydrate and WPH increases skeletal muscle glycogen recovery by activating key enzymes such as Akt/PKB and atypical PKCs.
    Amino Acids 07/2009; 38(4):1109-15. DOI:10.1007/s00726-009-0321-0 · 3.65 Impact Factor