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Necesidades proteicas en los deportistas y pautas dietético-nutricionales para aumentar masa muscular

Revista Española de Nutrición Humana y Dietética 01/2012; 16:15-35.

ABSTRACT Uno de los efectos más importantes del entrenamiento de la fuerza es el
aumento de la hipertrofi a muscular. Para compensar sus limitaciones genéticas, los deportistas
deben tratar de optimizar los recursos dietético-nutricionales. El objetivo de la
presente revisión es analizar la evidencia científi ca del aporte proteico del deportista
según las diferentes modalidades deportivas. Dependiendo del gasto y el aporte energéticos
del deportista, el aporte total de proteínas de la ingesta energética diaria suele
suponer un 10-15%; sin embargo, es preferible calcular la cantidad proteica necesaria por
kg de peso corporal de cada individuo en concreto y según la disciplina deportiva. En este
sentido, se estima que para mantener la masa muscular los deportistas deben consumir
1,2-1,8 g de proteínas/kg/día, y para aumentarla (0,5 kg masa muscular/semana) deben
mantener una ingesta proteica de 1,6-1,8 g de proteína/kg/día, con un aumento de 400-
500 kcal en su dieta habitual, entendiendo que estas necesidades variarán según la modalidad
deportiva, la destrucción muscular generada, la masa muscular del atleta y los
depósitos de glucógeno. Es importante señalar que los depósitos de glucógeno muscular
y hepático vacíos aumentarían las necesidades proteicas para mantener la masa muscular.
Un exceso de ingesta de proteínas (> 2 g/kg/día) con las reservas de glucógeno agotadas
podría causar un aumento de la concentración de cuerpos cetónicos y urea, y producir,
entre otros, deshidratación precoz del deportista.

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