Outcomes of carotid stenting in patients with previous neck radiation.
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to report outcomes of percutaneous stenting of carotid stenosis in patients with previous neck radiation. BACKGROUND: Post-irradiation carotid disease is often extensive and involves atypical areas. Data regarding outcomes of stenting of these lesions are scarce. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records at our institution from January 1998 through May 2010 to determine baseline characteristics, procedural details and follow up data of patients who underwent stenting of radiation associated carotid stenosis. RESULTS: Our study included 70 patients who underwent a total of 83 procedures. Of these, 47 patients were male (67%), mean age was 66.3 ± 10.6 years. Mean follow-up was 47.5 months (range from 1 to 155 months). All patients had a history of radiotherapy to the neck area, with laryngeal cancer being the most common reason. Furthermore, 41 patients (58.5%) had previous neck surgery due to malignancies. An embolic protection device was used in 61 (73%) procedures. During the follow up, 5 (6%) ipsilateral events among a total of 10 (12.0%) ischemic events were observed. There was 1 intra-procedural stroke (1.2%), but there were no other ischemic event at 30 days and 1 year post procedure. Mortality was 4.8% during the first 30 days, 8.6% during the first year and 60% at the end of the study. Restenosis was seen in 2 (2.4%) patients at 1 year and in total 9 patients (10.8 %) with long-term follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Carotid stenting is a safe and durable treatment option for patients with severe carotid stenosis and neck radiation. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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ABSTRACT: A history of therapeutic irradiation to the neck complicates the management of carotid artery occlusive disease. Serious surgical concerns are raised regarding alternative incisions, difficult dissections, and adequate wound closure. Pathology may be typical atherosclerotic occlusive disease or radiation-induced arteritis. In order to establish guidelines for the treatment of these patients, we have reviewed our operative experience. A review of our operative experience over the past 15 years revealed 10 patients with a history of prior irradiation to the neck who underwent 14 carotid operations. The indications for radiation included laryngeal carcinoma and lymphoma. Five patients had undergone previous radical neck dissections, and four patients had permanent tracheostomies. The surgical indications were asymptomatic high-grade stenosis in 7 cases, transient ischemic attack in 4 cases, stroke in 2 cases, and a pseudoaneurysm in 1 case. Conventional carotid endarterectomy with patch angioplasty was used in 10 of the 14 operations. In the remaining four operations, saphenous vein interposition grafting was utilized to replace the diseased segment of carotid artery secondary to a panarteritis. Wound closure required dermal grafting in two of five cases where surgery was performed ipsilateral to a prior radical neck dissection. One perioperative cerebral infarction occurred; there were no other neurologic or non-neurologic complications. All patients are doing well in one- to five-year follow-up, with serial postoperative duplex scans demonstrating no signs of recurrent stenosis. Patients with a history of irradiation to the neck should be screened for the presence of carotid disease. Carotid occlusive disease should be treated surgically in these patients with the usual indications. Intraoperative surgical management is similar to that of non-irradiated patients. Concerns about difficulty in achieving an adequate endarterectomy plane and about problems with wound closure have generally been unfounded.The American Journal of Surgery 09/1996; 172(2):191-5. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although it is established that small and medium sized arteries undergo extensive radiation damage, the effect on large vessels such as the carotid arteries is less well understood. We sought to determine if an increased severity of carotid artery stenosis is present in patients who have undergone radiotherapy for head and neck tumours. 45 patients aged 43-90 years (average 67) with head and neck malignancies treated with radiotherapy underwent colour Doppler ultrasonographic scanning of the carotid arteries. These patients were compared with a population of asymptomatic historical controls. 60% of patients demonstrated stenosis ranging from 21 to 86%. 38% of patients demonstrated a stenosis greater than or equal to 50%. Carotid artery stenosis appears to be increased in patients who have previously undergone treatment with radiotherapy to the head and neck regions compared with controls (p < 0.001). These findings suggest that radiation has an adverse effect on large vessels. Colour Doppler follow-up may be indicated for patients receiving head and neck radiation therapy.British Journal of Radiology 09/1998; 71(848):872-5. · 1.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The development of carotid atherosclerosis after neck irradiation is well documented. There has been concern about the safety and durability of carotid artery repair through a radiated field. The objective of this report is to describe the immediate and long-term results of a series of cases collected in a 13-year interval. From 1984 to 1997, 24 patients underwent 26 carotid artery operations. All the patients had undergone prior radiation therapy at a mean interval of 17 years, with an average radiation dose of 6300 rad. Severe scarring of the skin or radiation fibrosis were present in two thirds of the patients, with 4 patients having permanent tracheostomies. The indications for carotid surgery included cerebral or monocular transient ischemic attack (58%), asymptomatic high-grade stenosis (27%), prior stroke (12%), and tumor invasion of the carotid artery (4%). General anesthesia was used with selective shunting on the basis of carotid artery back pressure or electroencephalography monitoring. Patch angioplasty closure was used in 79% of the patients. The operations included standard carotid endarterectomy (n = 20), external carotid endarterectomy (n = 2), carotid patch angioplasty alone (n = 2), aortocarotid bypass grafting (n = 1), and carotid interposition grafting (n = 1). Four patients required skin grafting or myocutaneous flaps. No deaths or strokes occurred within 30 days of the operations. Six patients had transient cranial nerve palsy, and two had wound infections. The patients were followed from 1 to 156 months, with six patients being followed for longer than 18 months. No strokes were seen at late follow-up examination. Duplex scan examination documented one occlusion, in a patient with primary closure, and two restenoses, one of which necessitated reoperation. The remainder of the grafts were widely patent. Carotid surgery after neck irradiation is safe and durable. The long-term patency rates and the protection against subsequent neurologic events are similar to the results obtained in the absence of radiation therapy. Problems of wound healing were not found in this series.Journal of Vascular Surgery 02/1999; 29(1):90-6; discussion 97-9. · 2.88 Impact Factor