Hexa-D-Arginine Treatment Increases 7B2 center dot PC2 Activity in hyp-Mouse Osteoblasts and Rescues the HYP Phenotype

Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison and Geriatric Research and Education Center, William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison, WI 53792.
Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (Impact Factor: 6.59). 08/2013; 28(1). DOI: 10.1002/jbmr.1738
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Inactivating mutations of PHEX/Phex underlie disease in patients with X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) and the hyp-mouse, a murine homologue of the human disorder. Although increased serum FGF-23 underlies the HYP phenotype, the mechanism(s) by which PHEX mutations inhibit FGF-23 degradation and/or enhance production remains unknown. Here we show that treatment of wild type mice with the proprotein convertase (PC) inhibitor, Decanoyl-Arg-Val-Lys-Arg-chloromethyl ketone, increases serum FGF-23 and produces the HYP phenotype. Since PC2 is uniquely co-localized with PHEX in osteoblasts/bone, we examined if PC2 regulates PHEX-dependent FGF-23 cleavage and production. Transfection of murine osteoblasts with PC2 and its chaperone protein 7B2 cleaved FGF-23, while Signe1 (7B2) RNAi transfection, which limited 7B2 protein production, decreased FGF-23 degradation and increased Fgf-23 mRNA and protein. The mechanism by which decreased 7B2•PC2 activity influences Fgf-23 mRNA was linked to reduced conversion of proBMP1 to active BMP1, which resulted in limited cleavage of DMP1, and consequent increased Fgf-23 mRNA. The significance of decreased 7B2•PC2 activity in XLH was confirmed by studies of hyp-mouse bone, which revealed significantly decreased Sgne1 (7B2) mRNA and 7B2 protein, and limited cleavage of proPC2 to active PC2. The expected downstream effects of these changes included decreased FGF-23 cleavage and increased FGF-23 synthesis, secondary to decreased BMP1-mediated degradation of DMP1. Subsequent Hexa-D-Arginine treatment of hyp-mice enhanced bone 7B2•PC2 activity, normalized FGF-23 degradation and production, and rescued the HYP phenotype. These data suggest decreased PHEX-dependent 7B2•PC2 activity is central to the pathogenesis of XLH. © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

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    ABSTRACT: Increases in fibroblastic growth factor 23 (FGF23 or Fgf23) production by osteocytes result in hypophosphatemia and rickets in the Hyp mouse homologue of X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH). Fibroblastic growth factor (FGF) signaling has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Hyp. Here, we conditionally deleted FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1 or Fgfr1) in osteocytes of Hyp mice to investigate the role of autocrine/paracrine FGFR signaling in regulating FGF23 production by osteocytes. Crossing dentin matrix protein 1 (Dmp1)-Cre;Fgfr1null/+ mice with female Hyp;Fgfr1flox/flox mice created Hyp and Fgfr1 (Fgfr1Dmp1-cKO)-null mice (Hyp;Fgfr1Dmp1-cKO) with a 70% decrease in bone Fgfr1 transcripts. Fgfr1Dmp1-cKO-null mice exhibited a 50% reduction in FGF23 expression in bone and 3-fold reduction in serum FGF23 concentrations, as well as reductions in sclerostin (Sost), phosphate regulating endopeptidase on X chromosome (PHEX or Phex), matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (Mepe), and Dmp1 transcripts, but had no demonstrable alterations in phosphate or vitamin D homeostasis or skeletal morphology. Hyp mice had hypophosphatemia, reductions in 1,25(OH)2D levels, rickets/osteomalacia and elevated FGF2 expression in bone. Compared to Hyp mice, compound Hyp;Fgfr1Dmp1-cKO-null mice had significant improvement in rickets and osteomalacia in association with a decrease in serum FGF23 (3607 to 1099 pg/ml), an increase in serum phosphate (6.0 mg/dl to 9.3 mg/dl) and 1,25(OH)2D (121±23 to 192±34 pg/ml) levels, but only a 30% reduction in bone FGF23 mRNA expression. FGF23 promoter activity in osteoblasts was stimulated by FGFR1 activation and inhibited by overexpression of a dominant negative FGFR1(TK-), PLCγ and MAPK inhibitors. FGF2 also stimulated the translation of an FGF23 cDNA transfected into osteoblasts via a FGFR1 and PI3K/Akt-dependent mechanism. Thus, activation of autocrine/paracrine FGF pathways is involved in the pathogenesis of Hyp through FGFR1-dependent regulation of FGF23 by both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. This may serve to link local bone metabolism with systemic phosphate and vitamin D homeostasis.
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    ABSTRACT: Rapid and somewhat surprising advances have recently been made toward understanding the molecular mechanisms causing heritable disorders of hypophosphatemia. The results of clinical, genetic, and translational studies have interwoven novel concepts underlying the endocrine control of phosphate metabolism, with far-reaching implications for treatment of both rare Mendelian diseases as well as common disorders of blood phosphate excess such as chronic kidney disease (CKD). In particular, diseases caused by changes in the expression and proteolytic control of the phosphaturic hormone fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) have come to the forefront in terms of directing new models explaining mineral metabolism. These hypophosphatemic disorders as well as others resulting from independent defects in phosphate transport or metabolism will be reviewed herein, and implications for emerging therapeutic strategies based upon these new findings will be discussed.
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    ABSTRACT: Levels of serum phosphate are controlled by the peptide hormone FGF23, secreted from bone osteocytes. Elevated levels of circulating FGF23 are a key factor in several hypophosphatemic disorders, and play a role in chronic kidney disease. Posttranslational processing of FGF23 includes multi-site Oglycosylation, which reduces intracellular cleavage by proprotein convertases. The FGF23 protein also contains four serine phosphorylation consensus sequences (S-X-D/E); in this work, we asked whether FGF23 is a substrate for secretory phosphorylation. Both HEK cells as well as IDG-SW3 cells, an osteocyte model, incorporated radiolabeled orthophosphate into intact FGF23 as well as into the 14 kDa carboxy-terminal - but not the 17 kDa N-terminal-fragment. Sequential serine-to-alanine site-directed mutagenesis of four kinase consensus sites showed that labeling occurred on three serines within the carboxy-terminal fragment, Ser180 (adjacent to the cleavage site), Ser207, and Ser212. Liquid chromatography-coupled mass spectroscopy indicated the presence of phosphate at Ser212 in recombinant R&D mouse FGF23R179Q, confirming labeling results.A phosphopeptide-specific antibody was raised against phospho-Ser212 and exhibited immunoreactivity in osteocytes present in mouse long bone, providing further evidence that FGF23 is naturally phosphorylated in bone. Bone SIBLING proteins are serine-phosphorylated by the ubiquitous Golgi secretory kinase FAM20C. Co-transfection of HEK and MC3T3 cells with FGF23 and active, but not inactive, FAM20C kinase increased the storage and release of FGF23 in radiolabeling experiments, indicating potential effects of phosphorylation on FGF23 stability. Collectively, these data point to an important role for phosphorylation of FGF23 in bone. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
    Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 09/2014; 30(3). DOI:10.1002/jbmr.2354 · 6.59 Impact Factor

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