Influence of maize flour particle size on gluten-free breadmaking
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Maize, one of the suitable grains for coeliac consumption, is, together with rice, the most cultivated cereal in the world. However, the inclusion of maize flour in gluten-free bread is a minority and studies are scarce. This paper analyses the influence of different maize flour types and their particle sizes on the quality of two types of bread without gluten (80% and 110% water in the formulation) obtained from them. We also analysed the microstructure of the dough and its behaviour during the fermentation. RESULTS: Finer flours had a lower dough development during fermentation in all cases. Among the different types of flour, those whose microstructure revealed compact particles were those which had higher specific bread volume, especially when the particle size was greater. Among the formulations, the dough with more water gave breads with higher specific volume, an effect that was more important in more compact flours. The higher volume breads had lower values of hardness and resilience. CONCLUSION: The type of corn flour and mainly its particle size influence significantly the dough development of gluten-free bread during fermentation and therefore the final volume and texture of the breads obtained. The flours having coarser particle size are the most suitable for making gluten-free maize bread. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.
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ABSTRACT: Rice flour is becoming very attractive as raw material, but there is lack of information about the influence of particle size on its functional properties and starch digestibility. This study evaluates the degree of dependence of the rice flour functional properties, mainly derived from starch behavior, with the particle size distribution. Hydration properties of flours and gels and starch enzymatic hydrolysis of individual fractions were assessed. Particle size heterogeneity on rice flour significantly affected functional properties and starch features, at room temperature and also after gelatinization; and the extent of that effect was grain type dependent. Particle size heterogeneity on rice flour induces different pattern in starch enzymatic hydrolysis, with the long grain having slower hydrolysis as indicated the rate constant (k). No correlation between starch digestibility and hydration properties or the protein content was observed. It seems that in intact granules interactions with other grain components must be taken into account. Overall, particle size fractionation of rice flour might be advisable for selecting specific physico-chemical properties.10/2013; 98(1):421-7. DOI:10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.06.002
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ABSTRACT: Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune enteropathy, triggered by dietary gluten. The only treatment is a strict gluten-free diet. Oats are included in the list of gluten-free ingredients by European Regulation, but the safety of oats in CD is still a matter of debate. The present study examined the capability of different oat cultivars of activating the gliadin-induced transglutaminase-2 (TG2)-dependent events in some in vitro models of CD. In addition, we compared this capability with the electrophoresis pattern of peptic-tryptic digests of the proteins of the oat cultivars. K562(S) cells agglutination, transepithelial electrical resistance of T84-cell monolayers, intracellular levels of TG2 and phosphorylated form of protein 42-44 in T84 cells were the early gliadin-dependent events studied. The results showed that the Nave oat cultivar elicited these events, whereas Irina and Potenza varieties did not. The ability of a cultivar to activate the above-described events was associated with the electrophoretic pattern of oat proteins and their reactivity to anti-gliadin antibodies. We found significant differences among oat cultivars in eliciting the TG2-mediated events of CD inflammation. Therefore, the safety of an oat cultivar in CD might be screened in vitro by means of biochemical and biological assays, before starting a clinical trial to definitely assess its safety.European Journal of Nutrition 11/2013; 53(5). DOI:10.1007/s00394-013-0617-4 · 3.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A dietary survey was performed during a large screening study in Sweden among 13-year-old adolescents. The aim was to study how the intake of food groups was affected by a screening-detected diagnosis of coeliac disease (CD) and its gluten-free (GF) treatment. Food intake was reported using a FFQ, and intake reported by the adolescents who were diagnosed with CD was compared with the intake of two same-aged referent groups: (i) adolescents diagnosed with CD prior to screening; and (ii) adolescents without CD. The food intake groups were measured at baseline before the screening-detected cases were aware of their CD, and 12-18 months later. The results showed that food intakes were affected by screen-detected CD and its dietary treatment. Many flour-based foods were reduced such as pizza, fish fingers and pastries. The results also indicated that bread intake was lower before the screened diagnosis compared with the other studied groups, but increased afterwards. Specially manufactured GF products (for example, pasta and bread) were frequently used in the screened CD group after changing to a GF diet. The present results suggest that changing to a GF diet reduces the intake of some popular foods, and the ingredients on the plate are altered, but this do not necessarily include a change of food groups. The availability of manufactured GF replacement products makes it possible for adolescents to keep many of their old food habits when diagnosed with CD in Sweden.02/2014; 3:e2. DOI:10.1017/jns.2013.24