RAPADILINO RECQL4 mutant protein lacks helicase and ATPase activity.
ABSTRACT The RecQ family of helicases has been shown to play an important role in maintaining genomic stability. In humans, this family has five members and mutations in three of these helicases, BLM, WRN and RECQL4, are associated with disease. Alterations in RECQL4 are associated with three diseases, Rothmund-Thomson syndrome, Baller-Gerold syndrome, and RAPADILINO syndrome. One of the more common mutations found in RECQL4 is the RAPADILINO mutation, c.1390+2delT which is a splice-site mutation leading to an in-frame skipping of exon 7 resulting in 44 amino acids being deleted from the protein (p.Ala420-Ala463del). In order to characterize the RAPADILINO RECQL4 mutant protein, it was expressed in bacteria and purified using an established protocol. Strand annealing, helicase, and ATPase assays were conducted to characterize the protein's activities relative to WT RECQL4. Here we show that strand annealing activity in the absence of ATP is unchanged from that of WT RECQL4. However, the RAPADILINO protein variant lacks helicase and ssDNA-stimulated ATPase activity. These observations help explain the underlying molecular etiology of the disease and our findings provide insight into the genotype and phenotype association among RECQL4 syndromes.
Article: RECQ DNA Helicases and Osteosarcoma[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The RECQ family of DNA helicases is a conserved group of enzymes that are important for maintaining genomic integrity. In humans, there are five RECQ helicase genes, and mutations in three of them-BLM, WRN, and RECQL4-are associated with the genetic disorders Bloom syndrome, Werner syndrome, and Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS), respectively. Importantly all three diseases are cancer predisposition syndromes. Patients with RTS are highly and uniquely susceptible to developing osteosarcoma; thus, RTS provides a good model to study the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma. The "tumor suppressor" role of RECQL4 and the other RECQ helicases is an area of active investigation. This chapter reviews what is currently known about the cellular functions of RECQL4 and how these may relate to tumorigenesis, as well as ongoing efforts to understand RECQL4's functions in vivo using animal models. Understanding the RECQ pathways may provide insight into avenues for novel cancer therapies in the future.Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 01/2014; 804:129-45. DOI:10.1007/978-3-319-04843-7_7 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cellular senescence refers to irreversible growth arrest of primary eukaryotic cells, a process thought to contribute to aging-related degeneration and disease. Deficiency of RecQ helicase RECQL4 leads to Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS), and we have investigated whether senescence is involved using cellular approaches and a mouse model. We first systematically investigated whether depletion of RECQL4 and the other four human RecQ helicases, BLM, WRN, RECQL1 and RECQL5, impacts the proliferative potential of human primary fibroblasts. BLM-, WRN- and RECQL4-depleted cells display increased staining of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal), higher expression of p16(INK4a) or/and p21(WAF1) and accumulated persistent DNA damage foci. These features were less frequent in RECQL1- and RECQL5-depleted cells. We have mapped the region in RECQL4 that prevents cellular senescence to its N-terminal region and helicase domain. We further investigated senescence features in an RTS mouse model, Recql4-deficient mice (Recql4(HD)). Tail fibroblasts from Recql4(HD) showed increased SA-β-gal staining and increased DNA damage foci. We also identified sparser tail hair and fewer blood cells in Recql4(HD) mice accompanied with increased senescence in tail hair follicles and in bone marrow cells. In conclusion, dysfunction of RECQL4 increases DNA damage and triggers premature senescence in both human and mouse cells, which may contribute to symptoms in RTS patients.Cell Death & Disease 05/2014; 5(5):e1226. DOI:10.1038/cddis.2014.168 · 5.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: RECQL4, a member of the RecQ helicase family, is a multifunctional participant in DNA metabolism. RECQL4 protein participates in several functions both in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm of the cell, and mutations in human RECQL4 are associated with three genetic disorders: Rothmund-Thomson, RAPADILINO and Baller-Gerold syndromes. We previously reported that RECQL4 is recruited to laser-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). Here, we have characterized the functional roles of RECQL4 in the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway of DSB repair. In an in vitro NHEJ assay that depends on the activity of DNA-PK, extracts from RECQL4 knockdown cells display reduced end-joining activity on DNA substrates with cohesive and non-cohesive ends. Depletion of RECQL4 also reduced the end joining activity on a GFP reporter plasmid in vivo. Knockdown of RECQL4 increased the sensitivity of cells to γ-irradiation and resulted in accumulation of 53BP1 foci after irradiation, indicating defects in the processing of DSB. We find that RECQL4 interacts with the Ku70/Ku80 heterodimer, part of the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) complex, via its N-terminal domain. Further, RECQL4 stimulates higher order DNA binding of Ku70/Ku80 to a blunt end DNA substrate. Taken together, these results implicate that RECQL4 participates in the NHEJ pathway of DSB repair via a functional interaction with the Ku70/Ku80 complex. This is the first study to provide both in vitro and in vivo evidence for a role of a RecQ helicase in NHEJ.Carcinogenesis 06/2014; DOI:10.1093/carcin/bgu137 · 5.27 Impact Factor