An anthrax outbreak occurred in November 2010 in five villages of Sesheke district in Western Zambia. Control measures and data collection was carried out immediately the outbreak was reported. The prevalence of the disease in cattle was estimated at 7.4% (45/609) while the average herd size of infected cattle in affected villages was estimated at 121.8 (95% CI 48.8-194.8). Individual mortality per herd varied between 1.70% (3/179) and 20.25% (6/79). The relative risk of infection of cattle in the five affected villages varied between 0.18 (95% CI 0.4-5.7) and 3.7 (95% CI 1.99-6.68). In humans, the disease only affected three people and was characterized by cutaneous carbuncles. The ratio of infected persons per number of infected carcasses varied between 1:37 and 1:49 in affected villages while the overall ratio of people at risk to the number of carcasses was 42:1 indicating that despite availability of a large number of carcasses, human contact with infected carcasses was low. The findings of this study underline the importance of timely disease control measures in reducing the risk of human infections to anthrax in the face of an outbreak.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vaccination is the most successful application of immunological principles to human health. Vaccine efficacy needs to be reviewed from time to time and its safety is an overriding consideration. DNA vaccines offer simple yet effective means of inducing broad-based immunity. These vaccines work by allowing the expression of the microbial antigen inside host cells that take up the plasmid. These vaccines function by generating the desired antigen inside the cells, with the advantage that this may facilitate presentation through the major histocompatibility complex. This review article is based on a literature survey and it describes the working and designing strategies of DNA vaccines. Advantages and disadvantages for this type of vaccines have also been explained, together with applications of DNA vaccines. DNA vaccines against cancer, tuberculosis, Edwardsiella tarda, HIV, anthrax, influenza, malaria, dengue, typhoid and other diseases were explored.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anthrax is a soil-borne disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis and is considered a neglected zoonosis. In the country of Georgia, recent reports have indicated an increase in the incidence of human anthrax. Identifying sub-national areas of increased risk may help direct appropriate public health control measures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of human anthrax and identify environmental/anthropogenic factors associated with persistent clusters.
A database of human cutaneous anthrax in Georgia during the period 2000-2009 was constructed using a geographic information system (GIS) with case data recorded to the community location. The spatial scan statistic was used to identify persistence of human cutaneous anthrax. Risk factors related to clusters of persistence were modeled using a multivariate logistic regression. Areas of persistence were identified in the southeastern part of the country. Results indicated that the persistence of human cutaneous anthrax showed a strong positive association with soil pH and urban areas.
Anthrax represents a persistent threat to public and veterinary health in Georgia. The findings here showed that the local level heterogeneity in the persistence of human cutaneous anthrax necessitates directed interventions to mitigate the disease. High risk areas identified in this study can be targeted for public health control measures such as farmer education and livestock vaccination campaigns.
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